Aquaculture Zoology 1450 Dr. Craig Kasper HCC Aquaculture Program HCC Aquaculture Program

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  • Slide 1
  • Aquaculture Zoology 1450 Dr. Craig Kasper HCC Aquaculture Program HCC Aquaculture Program
  • Slide 2
  • Introduction Definition: Rearing of aquatic organisms under controlled or semi-controlled conditions. Definition: Rearing of aquatic organisms under controlled or semi-controlled conditions. Intensive Aquaculture: Highly controlled, high density, RAS, raceways, confined (industrialized) Intensive Aquaculture: Highly controlled, high density, RAS, raceways, confined (industrialized) Extensive Aquaculture: Minimal control, lower density, ponds, third world Extensive Aquaculture: Minimal control, lower density, ponds, third world
  • Slide 3
  • Properties of Water AqueousTerrestrial Oxygen0-14 mg/L 21% Oxygen0-14 mg/L 21% Temperature + 10C + 40C Temperature + 10C + 40C DensityVariable (4C) Constant DensityVariable (4C) Constant CompositionVariable* Constant CompositionVariable* Constant *Universal Solvent
  • Slide 4
  • Fish Husbandry Introduction: What Can We Grow? Introduction: What Can We Grow? Food finfish, crustaceans, mollusks, frogs, algae Food finfish, crustaceans, mollusks, frogs, algae Baitfishfathead minnow, golden shiner Baitfishfathead minnow, golden shiner Sportfishbass, bluegill, walleye Sportfishbass, bluegill, walleye Ornamentalstilapia, goby, Ornamentalstilapia, goby, Feeder fishgoldfish, shiner, minnow Feeder fishgoldfish, shiner, minnow Biological supply houses Biological supply houses
  • Slide 5
  • Introduction Professional Societies Interested in Aquaculture Professional Societies Interested in Aquaculture
  • Slide 6
  • Aquaculture Journals Journal of the World Aquaculture Society Journal of the World Aquaculture Society North American Journal of Aquaculture (PFC) North American Journal of Aquaculture (PFC) Aquaculture Aquaculture Journal of Applied Aquaculture Journal of Applied Aquaculture Aquaculture Nutrition Aquaculture Nutrition Aquaculture Research Aquaculture Research Journal of Aquatic Animal Health Journal of Aquatic Animal Health Transaction of the American Fisheries Society Transaction of the American Fisheries Society
  • Slide 7
  • Aquaculture History at SIU Cage culture of channel catfish Cage culture of channel catfish Hydroponics and aquaculture Hydroponics and aquaculture Intensive culture of striped bass fingerlings Intensive culture of striped bass fingerlings Aquaculture using heated effluents Aquaculture using heated effluents Recirculating aquaculture systems Recirculating aquaculture systems Hybrid striped bass aquaculture Hybrid striped bass aquaculture HCG drug approval HCG drug approval International (Peru) International (Peru) White bass (brood stock) White bass (brood stock)
  • Slide 8
  • Why Culture Fish? Finite Resource overfishing and habitat destruction Finite Resource overfishing and habitat destruction Fuel Cost $$$ Fuel Cost $$$ Proximity Farms may be closer to local markets. Proximity Farms may be closer to local markets. Exclusive Economic Zones Exclusive Economic Zones Health Consciousness (protein, FAs, micronutrients) Health Consciousness (protein, FAs, micronutrients) Efficiency (see next slide) Efficiency (see next slide) Trade Deficit$8 billion imported seafood! Trade Deficit$8 billion imported seafood!
  • Slide 9
  • Feed Conversion (grain/flesh) Beef cattle on feedlot8:1 Beef cattle on feedlot8:1 Swine3.3:1 Swine3.3:1 Poultry2.25:1 Poultry2.25:1 Rainbow trout1.5:1 Rainbow trout1.5:1 Tilapia1.25:1 Tilapia1.25:1 Why ARE fish so efficient? Why ARE fish so efficient?
  • Slide 10
  • Utilization of Feed and Dietary Protein and Energy. Feed CompositionEfficiency AnimalProteinEnergy ME-Protein Feed Protein gain/ Protein g (kcal/ ratio Efficiency g protein gain/Mkcal (%)ME g) (kcal/g) (gain/feed) consumed MEconsumed (%)ME g) (kcal/g) (gain/feed) consumed MEconsumed Catfish 32 2.7 8.5 0.84 0.36 47 Catfish 32 2.7 8.5 0.84 0.36 47 Chicken 18 2.8 16 0.48 0.33 23 Chicken 18 2.8 16 0.48 0.33 23 Cattle 11 2.6 24 0.13 0.15 6 Cattle 11 2.6 24 0.13 0.15 6
  • Slide 11
  • Why Lower Energy Requirement? Dont have to maintain body temperature (heat increment, or HI) Dont have to maintain body temperature (heat increment, or HI) Less energy to maintain position (neutral buoyancy). Less energy to maintain position (neutral buoyancy). Lose less energy in protein catabolism and excretion of nitrogen (85% of waste nitrogen passes out gills). Lose less energy in protein catabolism and excretion of nitrogen (85% of waste nitrogen passes out gills). Livestock use bacteria to convert carbs. to proteinnot efficient, but cheap! Livestock use bacteria to convert carbs. to proteinnot efficient, but cheap!
  • Slide 12
  • Aquaculture Species of Interest Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis X. M. chrysops) Hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis X. M. chrysops) Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Baitfish Baitfish
  • Slide 13
  • Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)
  • Slide 14
  • Channel Catfish Status of Industry Status of Industry -largest aquaculture industry in U.S. ->610 million pounds (2003) -mostly in Mississippi Delta Region -1 st finfish production in U.S.! Culture Systems Culture Systems -primarily ponds (economy of scale) -primarily ponds (economy of scale) -some reared in cages, pens, raceways -some reared in cages, pens, raceways
  • Slide 15
  • Channel Catfish (cont.) Environmental Requirements Environmental Requirements -Live in wide range of temperatures -Grow best in waters 80-90F -Tolerant to low dissolved oxygen (< 5 ppm). Availability Availability -Fingerlings of all sized can be purchased -Easy to spawn
  • Slide 16
  • Channel Catfish (cont.) Growth Rates and Production Growth Rates and Production -Two growing seasons (spring-fall) using 4-6 fingerlings to reach market size (1 lbs.) -10 fingerlings will get there in one season! -2000 lbs/acre w/o aeration. -4000 lbs/acre with aeration.
  • Slide 17
  • Channel Catfish (cont.) Cost of Production Cost of Production -cost about $0.55-0.65/lb -cost about $0.55-0.65/lb to produce to produce -Seel whole for ~$0.80-0.85/lb -Seel whole for ~$0.80-0.85/lb
  • Slide 18
  • Channel Catfish (cont.) Markets Markets -Well established and highly competitive (mature)* -Fee fishing lakes -Niche markets -Illinois prisions and other state institutions *Production and transporting products to market *Production and transporting products to market
  • Slide 19
  • Channel Catfish (cont.) Future Future -Prices will reamin low due to volume -Local markets can still be penetrated -Strains suitable for colloer climates needed! -Out-of-season spawning may be beneficial -Foreign competition becoming more apparent (Imported Basa and Tra from Vietnam has influenced market, 2001). -Country of Origin Labeling (COOL) has been enacted to help market US products.
  • Slide 20
  • Hybrid Striped Bass (Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis)
  • Slide 21
  • Hybrid between an anadromous (striped) and a freshwater (white) bass. Hybrid between an anadromous (striped) and a freshwater (white) bass. Sunshine bass (reciprocal cross)- Morone chyrsops X M. saxatilis is current industry leader. Sunshine bass (reciprocal cross)- Morone chyrsops X M. saxatilis is current industry leader. Palmetto bass (original cross) Morone saxatilis X M. chrysops . Less popular due to need for large females. Palmetto bass (original cross) Morone saxatilis X M. chrysops . Less popular due to need for large females.
  • Slide 22
  • Hybrid Striped Bass (cont.) Industry status: Industry status: -Rapidly growing (huge potential) -12 million lbs. produced in 2002 -most produced near coasts (CA, NC, SC) Culture Systems Culture Systems -Raised in ponds (NC, SC) and recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS, CA) -Can be reared in cages & raceways (not much here).
  • Slide 23
  • Hybrid Striped Bass (cont.) Environmental Requirements Environmental Requirements -Grow rapidly at70-80F, but as low as 45F. -Needs aeration (4000 lbs./acre) Availability Availability -fingerlings and fry can be purchased (2x $$ as catfish) -spawning relatively complicated (small hatchings, green water for larvae, hybridization by manual spawing)
  • Slide 24
  • Hybrid Striped Bass (cont.) Growth Rates and Production Growth Rates and Production -Two growing seasons from fry to market size (1.5 lbs.) -Two growing seasons from fry to market size (1.5 lbs.) -Can produce 2000 lbs./acre without and 4000 lbs./ acre with aeration. acre with aeration. Markets Markets -Most sold whole on ice (still a white tablecloth fish!) -Some market demand in Chicago and St. Louis -Niche markets (restaurants, value added) -Stocking as a sportfish (but only large ones > 4lbs.)
  • Slide 25
  • Hybrid Striped Bass (cont.) Markets Markets -Most sold whole on ice (still a white tablecloth fish!) -Some market demand in Chicago and St. Louis -Niche markets (restaurants, value added) -Stocking as a sportfish (but only large ones > 4lbs.)
  • Slide 26
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Status of industry Status of industry -Second largest species