Appendix 3: Annotated Bibliography Appendix 3: Annotated Bibliography Appendix 3: Annotated Bibliography

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  • Appendix 3: Annotated Bibliography

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    An Important Note

    The ‘HBEP Policy Implications for Practice’ provided at the end of each reference are the interpretations of the authors. They relate to the policy implications that emerge from the research fi ndings of the particular paper under which they appear. The policy implications are not necessarily applicable in all built environment contexts and need to be read in relation to the fi ndings of that particular paper.

  • HBEP literature review Appendix 3: Annotated Bibliography 145 

    HBEP literature review Appendix 3: Annotated Bibliography 145

    Abraham, A., Sommerhalder, K. and Abel, T. (2010). ‘Landscape and well-being: A scoping study on the health-promoting impact of outdoor environments’. International Journal of Public Health 55(1): 59-69.

    Key Words: Landscape; wellbeing; health- promoting behaviour; resources; scoping study.

    Location: The authors are from Switzerland; the study focus is worldwide.

    Aim: To conceptualise and discuss how different characteristics of the natural and human-made landscape can be used as a health resource to promote physical, mental, and social wellbeing.

    Method: This article is based on a scoping study which represents a special kind of qualitative literature review. Over 120 studies have been reviewed in a fi ve-step-procedure, resulting in a heuristic device.

    Conclusions: The results are divided into three subsections each focusing on mental, physical, and social wellbeing.

    • Mental wellbeing: landscape as a restorative. Public open spaces used for public entertainment and sports have an intermediate restorative effect in contrast to natural settings (which have a high restorative potential) or urban settings (which have a low restorative potential).

    • Physical wellbeing: walkable landscape. The way the urban landscape and environment is designed and built is crucial for the level of physical activity in daily life, work and leisure time.

    • Social wellbeing: landscape as a bonding structure. Urban parks and other public places can enhance social integration if they facilitate social contacts, exchange, collective work, community building, empowerment, social networks and mutual trust.

    • The relationship between landscape and health shows two main features: fi rst, health-promoting landscapes contribute to healthy lifestyles in terms of physical activity and mental and emotional relaxation. Second, health-promoting landscapes promote the acquisition of resources for health such as social support, concentration and emotional stability.

    Recommendations for Future Research:

    • More research in this fi eld is needed to better understand the health- promoting impacts of different landscape

    characteristics. Future studies should address issues concerning variations in landscape needs in different social groups. To better understand the user needs, more participative designed studies and interventions are needed.

    • To explore the issues around access to health-promoting landscapes by different social groups and not be limited to descriptions of the presence or absence of health-promoting landscape resources in socially deprived areas.

    • To investigate the quality of health- promoting landscape resources, their social meaning and people’s perception of their accessibility and relevance.

    Ashe, M., Feldstein, L. M., Graff, S., Kline, R., Pinkas, D. and Zellers, L. (2007). ‘Local venues for change: Legal strategies for healthy environments’. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35(1): 138-147.

    Key Words: Legal strategies; social norm; healthful behaviour.

    Location: The authors are from the USA; the study focus is on the USA.

    Aim: To assess and recommend legal strategies to help to de-normalise unhealthy behaviour and normalise healthy eating and physical activity.

    Method: Existing research was systematically assessed with a focus on the following areas of community health: the school environment, the built environment, community facilities, the point of sale environment, and the use of taxes or fees to pay for nutritional health policies and reduce the consumption of unhealthy products.


    • Schools should implement district wide healthy food and beverage policies that

    HBEP Policy Implications for Practice: • Actively incorporate the provision of

    a variety of public open spaces into masterplans and strategic plans.

    • Ensure public open space is not forfeited to other development agendas.

    • Encourage the provision of walking and cycling trails.

    • Reserve and manage spaces for organised community activities and casual social interactions.

  • establish nutrition standards, regulate vending machines and create a healthy vending program.

    • Communities can use local laws or polices to change zoning requirements, expand access to community facilities for recreational use, limit or ban the sale of non-nutritious food, and impose fees and taxes to dedicate funds towards obesity prevention.

    • Financial resources generated from taxing non-nutritious food should be spent in low-income areas to help reduce the disadvantage and disproportionate burden of overweight and obese health issues in these communities. This involves introducing measures such as farmers’ markets, grocery stores, physical education programs, and increased access to parks and recreation facilities in low-income areas.

    Recommendations for Future Research: No recommendations were articulated in the reference.

    Badland, H. and Schofi eld, G. (2005). ‘Transport, urban design, and physical activity: An evidence-based update’. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 10(3): 177- 196.

    Key Words: Urban design; urban environment; physical activity behaviour.

    Location: The authors are from New Zealand and USA; the literature reviewed is mostly from USA and Australia.

    Aim: To develop an understanding of built environment infl uences on physical activity modalities. To systematically draw together the evidence surrounding neighbourhood differences and traffi c calming effects based on urban design fundamentals, the

    impact of the localised environment for at risk populations, non-motorised travel characteristics, and measurement issues associated with merging physical activity, urban design, and transport research. To build on previous reviews on physical activity (Humpel et al. 2002 and Owen et al. 2004) and transport (Saelens et al. 2003 and Sallis et al. 2004).

    Method: The article reviewed a total of 24 studies. The method for sourcing literature was not articulated.

    Conclusions: The article lists several conclusions from the research, addressing neighbourhood differences, traffi c calming measures, at-risk populations, non-motorised transport and measurement issues. Key urban design elements attributable to transport related physical activity are density, sub- division age, street connectivity and mixed land use.

    Recommendations for Future Research: Consistent use of transport and health management tools, enhanced understanding of traffi c calming measures and further collaboration between health, transport and urban design sectors.


    Humpel, N., Owen, N. and Leslie, E. (2002). ‘Environmental factors associated with adults: Participation in physical activity’. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 22(3): 188-199.

    Owen, N., Humpel, N., Leslie, E., Bauman, A. and Sallis, J. F. (2004). ‘Understanding environmental infl uences on walking: Review and research agenda’. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 27(1): 67-76.

    Saelens, B. E., Sallis, J. F. and Frank, L. D. (2003). ‘Environmental correlates of walking and cycling: Findings from the transportation, urban design, and planning literatures’. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 25(2): 80-91.

    Sallis, J. F., Frank, L. D., Saelens, B. E. and Kraft, M. K. (2004). ‘Active transportation and physical activity: Opportunities for collaboration on transportation and public health research’. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 38(4): 249-268.

    HBEP literature review Appendix 3: Annotated Bibliography

    HBEP Policy Implications for Practice: • Advocate for schools to adopt healthy

    food and drink policies, including the regulation of vending machines.

    • Advocate for policies that restrict the sale of non-nutritious food, particularly in close proximity to schools.

    • Prioritise the development of parks, recreational facilities and farmers’ markets, especially in low-income areas.

    HBEP Policy Implications for Practice: • Promote higher residential densities

    in areas well serviced by public transport.

    • Ensure street connectivity and mixed uses to encourage take-up of active transport modes.

  • HBEP literature review Appendix 3: Annotated Bibliography 147 

    Bartolomei, L., Corkery, L., Judd, B. and Thompson, S. M. (2003). A bountiful harvest: Community gardens and neighbourhood renewal in Waterloo. NSW Department of Housing and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

    Key Words: Community garden; neighbourhood renewal; public housing.

    Location: The auth