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Annotated Bibliography

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Annotated Bibliography

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  • PRIMARY

    "BigListofRedFronts."TimesHerald:Washington'sIndependentNewspaper8Dec.1947:n.pag.TheU.S.NationalArchivesandRecordsAdministration.Web.

    Aprimarysourcepublishedin1947,thisarticlereportedthattheAttorneyGeneral,TomClark,hadreleasedanewlistofsubversiveorganizations.ItisbiasedinsupportofhimandthereporterwrotethatClark"deservessomeapplause."ItdescribesthatthelistservedasaguideforallloyalAmericans.Readingthisarticlegaveustheinsightthatthelistwasinformationforthepublic.Aprecursortoablacklist,itrestrictedtheopportunitiesofmany,regardlessiftheyactuallywereathreat,orhadhadaminorassociationinthepast.ThearticlegaveusrawevidenceofAmericansturningtheirheads,andperhapsrightfullyso,atallthosewhowereinvolvedinorganizationsthatposedsomepossiblethreat.AswellasnarrowcontextabouttherootsofMcCarthyism,thispassagealsohelpedusfurtherunderstandourtopic'srelationshiptothetheme:TheFBIwasinvolvedintheinvestigationoftheseorganizations,andthisresponsibilityfitintotheFBI'sgeneralroleofinvestigationandwasalsoappointedbythegovernment.

    Churchill,Ward,andJimVanderWall.TheCOINTELPROPapers:DocumentsfromtheFBI'sSecretWarsAgainstDomesticDissent.Boston,MA:SouthEnd,1990.Print.

    TheCOINTELPROinitiativewasavitalparttotheFBI'santisubversiveactions.Therecordsofitarepublishedinthisbook,withinsightfulcommentaryfromtheauthors,whohavebothwrittenbooksonthissubjectbefore.ThecommentaryisbiasedbecauseitportraystheFBIasessentiallyevil,andmakesit'sactionsseemunnecessary,liketheFBIdidnothavetheresponsibilitytogothatfar.Evenso,theimagesoftheCOINTELPROrecordshaveprovideduswithstrongprimarysourcesthatgiveinformationontheFBI'ssecretactivities.

    "DeathforASpies:RosenbergsGetTopPenaltyinAtomTrial."UniversalInternationalNews.N.d.PublicDomainArchivalStockFootage.EasyStreetProductions,LLC.Web.

    Whileresearching,weoftensawthecaseofEthelandJuliusRosenbergmentioned,butdidnotlookmuchintoit.WeconcludedthatitwasnecessarytogainthisnarrowcontextabouthowtherewasrealthreatofSovietspiesandhowitcontributedtothefear.Thispublicnewsreelairedin1951astheRosenbergcaseendedandappearstohavenobias.However,onecouldarguethatisagainsttheRosenbergs,astheyclaimedinnocence.WelearnedthattheRosenbergsleakedsecretstotheSovietUnionduringtheColdWar.Afterviewingthis,wehaveabetterunderstandingofthiscaseandwillunderstandreferencestoitandhowitvalidatedfear.

    "DominoTheoryPrinciple,DwightD.Eisenhower,1954."DominoTheoryPrinciple,DwightD.Eisenhower,1954.N.p.,n.d.Web.14Oct.2013..

    Eisenhower'sDominoTheorywasanimportantpartofhowAmerican'sapproachedCommunismduringtheSecondRedScare.ThisprimarysourceisthetextofEisenhowerexplainingthistheorytoreporters.WefounditonMichiganStateUniversity'sonlinearchives,andwehavebeenabletolocate

  • thesametextinotherplacesaswell,whichleadsustobelieveitislegitimate.Additionally,thistextprovideduswithnarrowcontext,onhowMcCarthyismfitintoCommunisminAmerica.

    Evans,M.Stanton."TheTruthAboutJosephMcCarthy&"McCarthyism""InterviewbyHowardPhilips.Youtube.ConservativeCaucus,19Nov.2012.Web..

    EvanswasacollegestudentduringtheMcCarthyera.HenowownstheFBIfilesfromtheMcCarthyTrials.Heisaconservative,andtheinterviewispublishedbyaconservativeorganization.Throughoveradecadeofcollectingevidence,EvansclaimshehasprovedthatSenatorJoeMcCarthywasrightaboutSovietAgentsintheU.S.governmentEvansjustifiesSenatorMcCarthy'shardcoreanticommunismandactions.Hedeniesthatrightsofinnocentcivilianswererestricted,becausefacttheyweresovietagents.HebelievedthethreatofcommunismwasrealandthatitwasAmerica'sandtheFBI'sresponsibilitytocombatit.ThissourceisclearlybiasedwhichisimportanttogiveusadeeperunderstandingofwhythegovernmentandFBIfeltsoresponsibletoridthenationofSovietandcommunistthreat.

    "Home."OurDocuments.U.S.DepartmentofState'sInformationUSAWebsite,n.d.Web.13Oct.2013.

    ThetranscriptsandactualimagesofJoseph'sMcCarthy'scensureaftertheWelchMcCarthyhearingsprovideuswithformalevidenceofwhyMcCarthywascensuredforhisactswhileincourt.McCarthywascondemnedofactingcontrarytosenatorialtraditionandethics.Inthesedocuments,detaileddescriptionsofhiswrongdoingsareprovidedwithquotationsofhiswordsduringthecourtsessionwhichledhimtobeingcensured.WeknowthatthissourceiscrediblebecauseitisaprimarysourceofrecordsfromtheU.S.DepartmentofStatethatdisplaysandprovidestranscriptsoftheoriginallegaldocumentusedin1954.

    Hoover,JohnEdgar.InterviewbyGeorgeSmathers.FloridaMemory.FloridaDepartmentofState,ca.1960.Web..

    ThispublicfilmedinterviewbyaFloridasenatorwasfoundintheFloridaDepartmentofStateonlinearchive.IttookplacejustseveralyearsaftertheplightoftheMcCarthyera.JohnEdgarHooverwasthedirectoroftheFBI,whichhadamajorroleininvestigatingsuspectedCommunistsubversionduringtheSecondRedScare.TheinterviewdisplayshisparanoiatowardsaforcefulCommunisttakeover.Itshowsthateventhoughthescarewasover,individualsstillfeltthreatened.TheinterviewgaveusoneprimaryexampleofthefearandhatredofcommunismthatlingeredonafterMcCarthyism.ItshowedthattheRedScaresurvivedformorethanthespanofaboutsixyearsinwhichMcCarthyhadtheUnitedStatesinthepalmofhishand.

    Hoover,JohnEdgar."TestimonyBeforetheHouseCommitteeonUnAmericanActivities."Washington,D.C.26Mar.1947.Speech.

    TheHouseCommitteeonUnAmericanActivities(HUAC)wasasubcommitteeoftheUnitedStatesHouseofRepresentatives.Itwasestablishedin1938toinvestigatesuspecteddisloyaltyandsubversiveness.Thisprimarysourcegaveusvitalinformationregardingrightsandresponsibilities.J.

  • EdgarHooverledtheFBIduringtheSecondRedScare.ToHUAC,helistedtheresponsibilitiestheFBIhadtoprotecttheUnitedStatesfromCommunism,whichsolelyincludedinvestigation.HealsoexplainedwhyactionsneededtobetakenandwhyitwastheFBIandthegovernment'sresponsibility.

    Matthews,J.B."RedsandOurChurches."TheAmericanMercury(1953):314.UNZ.org.Web.21Sept.2013..

    J.B.MatthewswasMcCarthy'sresearchdirector,soitcameasnosurprisewhenwereadthisarticleandfoundoutitwasincrediblybiased.Itportrayedanticommunistsasheroesandcommunists,specificallyclergymen,asenemies.ItwasinterestingtoreadanarticlefromtheMcCarthyismera,togivemeanideaofwhatinfluencedthepeopleofthattime.Eventhoughthisarticlewasmainlyattackingclergymen,itdidhavesomequotesfromFBIdirectorJEdgarHoover,whichhelpedtoshowhowinvolvedhewasduringthewholeera.

    TheMcCarthyYears.Prod.EdwardR.MurrowandFredW.Friendly.ByRussBensley.Dir.SamRoberts.CBS,Inc.,1991.DVD.

    AsacollectionofprimarysourceswithsomecommentarybyaCBSNewsanchor,thisdocumentaryallowedforustomakeourownconclusionsaboutthematerial.ItprovidedfirsthandvideosofspeechesthatshowedushowMcCarthyinfringedonpeople'srights.Italsogavepersonalstoriesofpeoplewho'sliveswereaffectedbyhim.AlthoughitdidnottalkabouttheFBI,Morrow'scommentarygavesimplebroadcontextofhowMcCarthyismfitintoCommunism.UponresearchingEdwardR.Morrowwediscoveredthatheisa"great"ofbroadcastjournalism,andhesetthestandardformanyothers.Thisdocumentary,inaddition,wonanEmmywhichconfirmedforusthatitisastrongandreliablesource.

    "McCarthyWelchExchangeDuringtheArmyMcCarthyHearingsOnlineSpeechBank."McCarthyWelchExchangeDuringtheArmyMcCarthyHearingsOnlineSpeechBank.AmericanRhetoric,2001.Web.11Sept.2013.

    WefoundthissourceoffoftheAmericanRhetoricwebsitethathadapagewithlinkstothetoponehundredspeechesinAmerica.Thewebsite'screatorisagraduateoftheUniversityofTexasandhashisPhDinspeechandcommunication.TheMcCarthyWelchExchangewasrankedonthesiteastheninetyninthbestpoliticalspeechinAmericainthe20thcentury.ThespeechisfamousforexposingtherecklessnessofMcCarthyinhispursuittoridtheU.S.ofcommunismduringtheColdWarEra.Thisprimarysourceincludedavideooftheactualsupremecourthearingwithatranscript.Forus,thissourceisgreatevidencetosupporttheactionsofMcCarthyincludinghisabuseofresponsibilityasanFBIleaderwhenaccusingpeoplelikeMr.Welchwithalmostnoorillegallyobtainedevidence.

    N.d.Photograph.TheNationalArchives.TheU.S.NationalArchivesandRecordsAdministration.Web.6Oct.2013.

    TakenfromaTimesHeraldWashington'sIndependentNewspaperclippingpublishedonDecember8,1947,thisprimarysourceprovidedhandsonknowledgeaboutthenamesof"red"organizationsandschoolsaroundthetimeoftheSecondRedScarereleasedbyAttorneyGeneralTomC.Clark.

  • Thisclippingprovidesuswithspecificdetailsthatincludethenamesofcertainorganizationspossiblyassociatedwithcommunismthatwillallowustodofurtherresearchonourtopic.Therightsofmanyoftheseorganizationswereinfringedupon,andwecanusethesespecificcasestosupportourthesisabouttheSecondRedScareandMcCarthyism.WeknowthatthissourceiscrediblesinceitisananationalarchiveandofficialrecordoftheHouseofRepresentatives.

    SchiffShannon,Dorothy.Personalinterview.28Oct.13.

    DorothySchiffShannongaveusinterestinginsighttowhattheactualMcCarthyerawaslike.WhenshewasincollegeherteacherwasbroughtbeforeHUAC,andmanyotherpeopleshehadheardofwentthroughthesamething.ShewasbiasedagainstCommunists,whichmakessensebecauseshedidhaveareasontodistort,sinceherteacherwassomeonewhowasaffected.Herstoriesabout"fifthamendmentcommunists"spurredustodomoreresearchinthattopic,whichaddedtoourargumentgreatly.Overall,shewasveryhelpfulforaddingsmallbitsofinformationtomakeourargumentbetter.

    "SpeechExplainingtheCommunistThreat|TeachingAmericanHistory."TeachingAmericanHistory.AshlandUniversity,n.d.Web.14Oct.2013.

    InoursearchtoseebothperspectivesoftheethicsintheFBI'sactionsaftertheSecondRedScare,wefoundthetranscriptsofSenatorMcCarthy'sspeechontheTeachingAmericanHistorywebsitesponsoredbyAshlandUniversity.OnthetopicofCommunistThreatinAmerica,McCarthyspokeonJune2,1950abouthisofopiniontowardcommunistsandexpressedhisconcernofAmericafallingtocommunism.WefoundthatMcCarthy'sconcernactuallymatcheduptomanyAmericans'concernofthespreadofcommunismwhereChinawouldfall,thenthePacific(Asia),andfinallyAmerica.SeeingMcCarthy'sreasoningforhisradicalactioninapublicspeech,weknowthathiswordsmaynotbenecessarilyaccurateofhistrueopinionormotivessincehewantedtobevotedintoofficeatthetimeofhisspeech.However,thissourceisareliable,primarysourcethatgaveusfurtherperspectiveonourtopic.