Annotated BibliographyAlison Chang, Selena Lu, and Amy van Ee
Primary Sources:Journal:Ginger. "Sunday, December 7. 1941." Ginger's Diary (n.d.): 1. Essential Pearl Harbor. Osprey Publishing, 2008. Web. 27 Nov. 2013.These excerpts from Gingers diary helped us understand his point of view of the bombing. He was a 17 year old senior in high school who lived in Hickam Field, Hawaii. When he woke up on Sunday morning of the bombing, Ginger thought that something exciting was happening. He noticed black smoke and explosions outside, and when he went outside of his house with his mom, he observed three planes flying in the sky. There was fire on the barracks, which housed the soldiers, and a whole hangar line was destroyed. When driving on the road, Ginger and his family had to move aside every now and then to let ambulances pass by.
Photos:"Air Raid Pearl Harbor This Is No Drill !!!" Air Raid Pearl Harbor. US Navy, National Archives, NHC Naval Historical Center, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2013.Many of the pictures show the resulting damage and/or explosions on the ships. There are also pictures of each damaged ship such as the USS Nevada, Oklahoma, West Virginia, Tennessee, Maryland, Arizona, and many more. The website containing these pictures includes one colored picture of the minelayer Oglala.
N.d. Photograph. Military History. Web. 25 Nov. 2013.This black and white photograph is of an explosion taking down a ship that is likely to be the American USS Arizona due to the large explosion. The explosion was exceptionally violent because of the ignition of over a million pounds of gunpowder. The gunpowder was stored in the basement of the ship.
Interviews:Gano, Margaret Ellen, and Hubert Gano. "About Our Experience." Interview. Interview with Pearl Harbor Eyewitnesses. Scholastic, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2013. .This interview was about Hubert Dale Gano, who was a retired US Navy Commander, and his spouse Margaret Ellen Johnie Gano who both witnessed the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Both were 25 years of age and lived in Pearl City, on a peninsula which stretched towards Pearl Harbor. Johnie saw sunken US Navy ships and, when she reached Ford Island, she saw several dead or wounded sailors on the ground. Both Dale and Johnie were in a state of shock as they watched Pearl Harbor being attacked and damaged and thousands of people dying. When the bomb fell, Johnie and Dale were deciding on whether or not to go to church. The couple didnt see any bombs, but they did see tracers, or ammunition that, when shot, left a trail of smoke behind. Dale was not assigned to a ship, but to the Naval Air Station. Damage to building to this station was very minor. Although ships and airplanes were destroyed, no buildings were bombed.After the attack, all Japanese Americans were moved to internment camps in California. Dale blamed President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his supporters for their unpreparedness. He believed that the president should have been suspecting an attack from Japan.
Miller, Jim D., G. S. Flannigan, W. J. Bush, A. R. Schubert, J. S. Doherty, and S. Q. Fuqua. "USS Arizona (BB-39) Action Report: 7 Dec 1941." USS Arizona (BB-39) Action Report: 7 Dec 1941. Naval Historical Center, 11 June 2001. Web. 27 Nov. 2013.From these interviews, we learned that the raid alarm of the USS Arizona was supposed to signal three blasts, although most people only heard one before the explosion happened. According to Jim D. Miller, the captain was not on the ship at the time of the attack. To G. Flannigan, there was nothing on the speaker system and there was too much smoke to see anything. Another man named W. Bush had desperately tried to extinguish the fires, but there were no available supplies on hand. A. Schubert was on deck when the attack started, and so he saw low-winged monoplanes with the meatballs (the Japanese red disc symbolizing the sun) on the underside of the wings. To Doherty, the air raid alarm had sounded too late, at the exact same time the bombing started. At 7:55, fifteen torpedo planes, a dive bomber, and around thirty other planes were spotted attacking USS Arizona. Another man onboard the ship named S. Fuqua recalled that around 9:00 AM, USS Arizona had run out of anti-airplane ammunition, and everyone had to abandon ship.
"Oral History Pearl Harbor Attack: Oral History: LT Erickson." Oral History Pearl Harbor Attack: Oral History: LT Erickson. Naval History and Heritage Command, n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013.This interview was about a nurse named Ruth Erickson, who tended to injured survivors of the bombing. We learned that normally, there were aircraft practices on weekends for the military and that at first, the people werent bothered by the planes. The civilians went on with life, thinking that the deadly planes were part of a normal drill. Erickson had many patients who were burnt on their faces, arms, and legs.
Newspapers:"Allies Open Rome Drive." New Castle News 26 May 1944: 1. World War 2 Articles. Web. 25 Nov. 2013.This newspaper gave us more information on the Allied forces movement through Italy. The newspaper expressed the importance of the Allied troops fighting the Axis, or Germans and Italians, to gain control over the Italian peninsula. It is stated that the Allied forces were rather successful in this fight. The Allied soldiers also gained Rome from Germany in a battle. Liberated Italians greeted the American troops with much gratitude. When General MacArthur of the United States side led his troops to Dutch New Guineas Maffin Bay to take control over the airdrome, which is an airplane operation area, situated there, they encountered Japanese troops. By the end of the battle, the number of Japanese casualties was greater than American casualties by a large amount.
"Japan Wars on US and Britain; Makes Sudden Attack on Hawaii; Heavy Fighting at Sea Reported." The New York Times, 8 Dec. 1941. Web. 24 Nov. 2013.To the minority of the American citizens, it seemed that the Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, with no real reason or valid ulterior motive. This attack came as a complete surprise to Americans, as they did not make provisions for such an offense. The attack inspired confusion, unity, anger, anxiety, and determination among the Americans.
"Reds Drive Deeper into Berlin." Joplin Globe 25 Apr. 1945: 1. World War 2 Articles. Web. 25 Nov. 2013.This newspaper helped us understand how the Germans and Russians surrendered. The day that Soviet and American soldiers met at the Elbe River, in Germany, to march to Munich was the day that the troops took control over Ulm, which was a major communications center for Germany. It was reported that Berlin was in flames, with Russian armies together to make a final stand as a Nazi army. 20, 000 to 30, 000 disarmed Germans marched towards the Allied lines in surrender. This was one of the largest surrenders ever to have taken place. Although it was believed that Hitler went into hiding, there were reports that he remained in Berlin. The Allied forces also captured the 125-mile long defense line in Italy. They captured cities and military bases, marking a major turning point in the World War II.
"Second World War Breaks." Fairbanks Daily News-Miner 4 Sept. 1939: 1. World War 2 Articles. Web. 25 Nov. 2013.This newspaper helped us to understand how people in Alaska, more specifically Fairbanks, processed the events taking place during that time. In London, on September 4, which was Chamberlain Sunday, it was stated that Britain was at war with Germany. Germany didnt respond to the ultimatum before its expiration, leading to Britain and Frances declaration of war. Soon following was New Zealand, Egypt, and Australia. Britain began sending military forces to China, attacking Germans at the German Tennis Club in Shanghai. France began sending troops and help to Poland to try to force the German troops to leave. The current president of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt, also mentioned that the US was to remain neutral and to not get involved in the war. Germany performed a torpedo attack on the British ship powered on steam engines Athenia, killing approximately 1,400 refugees, mainly from Canada. The ship was bombed only 300 miles east of the country of Scotland.
"YesterYear Once More." YesterYear Once More. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2013.The Americans saw the bombing of Pearl Harbor as a horrid massacre, and newspapers did not mention anything about self-defense, which gave the impression of being defenseless. The pictures in the newspaper depict neither Americans holding guns nor American war planes. This was a tactic to show the American citizens that the Japanese were brutal and could not be trusted. Also, there were many pictures of navy men placing objects on memorials and pictures of annihilated and destroyed ships, planes, and more. Overall, the American newspaper articles were very biased towards their own side.
"U.S. Declares War." Manitowoc Herald Times 8 Dec. 1941: 1. Pearl Harbor Articles & Newspaper. Web. 25 Nov. 2013.This newspaper gave us more information about the US Congress declaring war on Japan after the attack on Pearl Harbor. On December 8, 1941, Congress declared war on Japan. Washington admitted that over 3, 000 Americans were either hurt or killed, and that aircraft and naval ships were damaged, but how many it did not mention.
Secondary SourcesBooks:Allen, Thomas B. Remember Pearl Harbor: American and Japanese Survivors Tell Their Stories. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2001. Print.From this book, we learned that America was friends with China, so when Japan invaded China, Japan became Americas enemy. Germany had been allies with Japan, and Germany allowed Japan to take over the Pacific colonies. When the Americans realized, Franklin D. Roosevelt moved US Navys Pacific Fleet from California to Pearl Harbor. Later, Japanese tr