Analysis of Solar Absorption Cooling and Heating System

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    Model Based Design and Performance Analysis of

    Solar Absorption Cooling and Heating System

    Ming Qu

    Carnegie Mellon University

    School of Architecture

    Ph.D. Committee

    Prof. Volker Hartkopf, Ph.D. (Chair)

    Prof. David Archer, Ph.D.

    Prof. Khee Poh Lam, Ph.D.

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    i

    Copyright Declaration

    I hereby declare that I am the sole author of this thesis.

    I authorize Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to lend this thesis to other

    institutions or individuals for the purpose of scholarly research.

    I authorize Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to reproduce this thesis by

     photo copying or by other means, in total or in part, at the request of other institutions or

    individuals for the purpose of scholarly research.

    Copyright ©2008 by Ming Qu

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    ii

    Acknowledgement

    I wish to express my gratitude to my advisor, Dr. Volker Hartkopf, for his invaluable vision,

    support, and encouragement. His enthusiasm and inspiration were essential to the success of this

    research. Surely, I would like to extend my sincere appreciation and profound gratitude to Dr.

    David Archer who has played a pivotal role in this thesis. He has far exceeded his duty as an

    advisor. He gave me a deep understanding of mechanical engineering; he taught me how to

    develop critical thinking and work effectively. He has been an ever-present source of guidance

    and encouragement throughout my doctoral program. It gives me great pleasure to thank Dr. Khee

    Poh Lam for providing valuable suggestions and carefully reviewing and constructively critiquing

    of my work.

    I owe many thanks to my dear colleague and husband, Hongxi Yin, who gave me continuous

    support and took care of our babies, Ryan and David, who fill us with joy every day. This thesis is

    dedicated to my parents in their confidence, their high expectations, and their hearty blessing.

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    iii

    Model Based Design and Performance Analysis of

    Solar Absorption Cooling and Heating System

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    iv

    Table of Contents

    1  Introduction........................................................................................................................... 1 

    1.1  Background and motivation........................................................................................... 2 

    1.1.1  Solar receivers ........................................................................................................... 3 

    1.1.2  Absorption Cycle....................................................................................................... 3 

    1.1.3  Solar collector coupled with absorption chillers........................................................ 5 

    1.2  Current studies on solar absorption cooling and heating systems.................................. 5 

    1.3  Research objective ......................................................................................................... 7 

    1.4  Research approach ......................................................................................................... 8 

    1.4.1  The planning of the test system ................................................................................. 9 

    1.4.2  The development of solar collector model ................................................................ 9 

    1.4.3  The development of annual system performance simulation .................................. 10 

    1.4.4  The installation of the test system ........................................................................... 11 

    1.4.5  The test program and experimental data gathering.................................................. 12 

    1.4.6  Data analyses, model validation and simulation evaluation .................................... 13 

    1.5  Chapter overview......................................................................................................... 13 

    2  Solar absorption cooling and heating test system and program..................................... 15 

    2.1  Parabolic trough solar collector ................................................................................... 15 

    2.1.1  Device description ................................................................................................... 15 

    2.1.2  Major components and characteristic ...................................................................... 17 

    2.2  Absorption chiller ........................................................................................................ 17 

    2.2.1  Device description ................................................................................................... 17 

    2.2.2  Major components and characteristics..................................................................... 18 

    2.3  Solar absorption cooling and heating test system ........................................................ 20 

    2.3.1  System description................................................................................................... 20 

    2.3.2  The solar collection loop ......................................................................................... 20 

    2.3.3  The load loop........................................................................................................... 22 

    2.3.4  Instrumentation, control and data acquisition system.............................................. 23 

    2.4  The test program .......................................................................................................... 27 

    2.4.1  The results of PTSC test at the transient states........................................................ 31 

    2.4.2  The results of PTSC test at a steady state ................................................................ 33 

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    2.4.3  The results of solar absorption cooling / heating daily test ..................................... 34 

    2.4.4  The results of solar heating daily test by using heat exchanger............................... 40 

    2.5  The interpretation of PTSC performance data ............................................................. 42 

    2.5.1  The energy balance of the PTSC ............................................................................. 42 

    2.5.2  The selection of experimental data .......................................................................... 44 

    2.5.3  PTSC performance predicted by statistic tool ......................................................... 44 

    2.6  Discussion of test program........................................................................................... 46 

    3  Solar collector performance model ................................................................................... 47 

    3.1  PTSC model assumption.............................................................................................. 47 

    3.2  Energy balance analysis ............................................................................................... 48 

    3.3  Heat transfer analysis................................................................................................... 51 

    3.4  

    Calculation procedure .................................................................................................. 53  

    3.5  Solar irradiation absorption.......................................................................................... 55 

    3.5.1  Direct normal solar radiation................................................................................... 56 

    3.5.2  Incident angle and incident modifier ....................................................................... 56 

    3.5.3  End-loss ................................................................................................................... 57 

    3.5.4  Shadow-loss............................................................................................................. 59 

    3.6  Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 60 

    4  Model-based experimental data analysis of PTSC........................................................... 61 

    4.1  Analytical method........................................................................................................ 61 

    4.1.1  Model validation...................................................................................................... 61 

    4.2  Model-based PTSC performance