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  • An Integrated Study of Pervious Concrete Mixture Design for Wearing Course Applications

    Final ReportOctober 2011

    Sponsored throughFederal Highway Administration (DTFH61-06-H-00011 (Work Plan 10))and the Ready Mixed Concrete (RMC) Research & Education Foundation

  • About the National CP Tech Center

    The mission of the National Concrete Pavement Technology (CP Tech) Center is to unite key transportation stakeholders around the central goal of advancing concrete pavement technology through research, tech transfer, and technology implementation.

    About the Institute for Transportation

    The mission of the Institute for Transportation (InTrans) at Iowa State University is to develop and implement innovative methods, materials, and technologies for improving transportation efficiency, safety, reliability, and sustainability while improving the learning environment of students, faculty, and staff in transportation-related fields.

    Disclaimer Notice

    The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the information presented herein. The opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the sponsors.

    The sponsors assume no liability for the contents or use of the information contained in this document. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

    The sponsors do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

    Non-Discrimination Statement

    Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. veteran. Inquiries can be directed to the Director of Equal Opportunity and Compliance, 3280 Beardshear Hall, (515) 294-7612.

  • Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipients Catalog No. DTFH61-06-H-00011 Work Plan 10

    4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date An Integrated Study of Pervious Concrete Mixture Design for Wearing Course Applications

    October 2011 6. Performing Organization Code

    7. Author(s) Vernon R. Schaefer and John T. Kevern

    8. Performing Organization Report No.

    9. Performing Organization Name and Address 10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) National Concrete Pavement Technology Center Iowa State University 2711 South Loop Drive, Suite 4700 Ames, IA 50010-8664

    11. Contract or Grant No.

    12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address 13. Type of Report and Period Covered Federal Highway Administration Ready Mixed Concrete (RMC) U.S. Department of Transportation Research & Education Foundation 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE 900 Spring Street Washington, DC 20590 Silver Spring, MD 20910

    Final Report 14. Sponsoring Agency Code

    15. Supplementary Notes Visit www.cptechcenter.org for color PDF files of this and other research reports. 16. Abstract This report presents the results of the largest and most comprehensive study to date on portland cement pervious concrete (PCPC). It is designed to be widely accessible and easily applied by designers, producers, contractors, and owners.

    The project was designed to begin with pervious concrete best practices and then to address the unanswered questions in a systematic fashion to allow a successful overlay project. Consequently, the first portion of the integrated project involved a combination of fundamental material property investigations, test method development, and addressing constructability issues before actual construction could take place. The second portion of the project involved actual construction and long-term testing before reporting successes, failures, and lessons learned.

    The results of the studies conducted show that a pervious concrete overlay can be designed, constructed, operated, and maintained. A pervious concrete overlay has several inherent advantages, including reduced splash and spray and reduced hydroplaning potential, as well as being a very quiet pavement. The good performance of this overlay in a particularly harsh freeze-thaw climate, Minnesota, shows pervious concrete is durable and can be successfully used in freeze-thaw climates with truck traffic and heavy snow plowing.

    17. Key Words 18. Distribution Statement concrete mixturesfly ashpervious concreteportland cementsilica fumeslagternary mixtures

    No restrictions.

    19. Security Classification (of this report)

    20. Security Classification (of this page)

    21. No. of Pages 22. Price

    Unclassified. Unclassified. 156 NA

    Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized

  • AN INTEGRATED STUDY OF PERVIOUS CONCRETE MIXTURE DESIGN FOR WEARING

    COURSE APPLICATIONS Final Report October 2011

    Principal Investigator

    Vernon R. Schaefer Professor of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering

    Iowa State University

    Co-Principal Investigator John T. Kevern

    Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering University of Missouri-Kansas City

    Kejin Wang

    Professor of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering Iowa State University

    Research Assistants

    Heath Cutler and Bin Tong

    Project Manager Paul Wiegand, Transportation Research Engineer

    National Concrete Pavement Technology Center/Institute for Transportation Iowa State University

    Authors

    Vernon R. Schaefer and John T. Kevern

    Sponsored through Federal Highway Administration DTFH61-06-H-00011 Work Plan 10

    and the Ready Mixed Cement (RMC) Research and Education Foundation

    A report from National Concrete Pavement Technology Center

    Institute for Transportation Iowa State University

    2711 South Loop Drive, Suite 4700 Ames, IA 50010-8664

    Phone: 515-294-8103 Fax: 515-294-0467 www.cptechcenter.org

  • v

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ........................................................................................................... xiii

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...........................................................................................................xv

    Pervious Concrete Air Entrainment ...................................................................................xvMeasuring Pervious Concrete Workability ........................................................................xvPervious Concrete Overlay Mixture Development .......................................................... xviPervious Concrete Curing and Surface Durability ........................................................... xviPervious Concrete Durability to Deicers ......................................................................... xviDesign Considerations to Reduce Potential Clogging .................................................... xviiPervious Concrete Overlay Construction ........................................................................ xviiPervious Concrete Overlay Field Durability and Performance ...................................... xviiPervious Concrete Overlay Noise Characteristics ......................................................... xviiiSummary and Conclusions ............................................................................................ xviii

    CHAPTER 1. STUDY OVERVIEW ...............................................................................................1

    Introduction to the Study .....................................................................................................1Background ..........................................................................................................................2Objectives of the Integrated Study .......................................................................................6

    CHAPTER 2. RESEARCH PLAN ..................................................................................................8

    Task 1. Optimize Pervious Concrete Mixtures for Mechanized Placement and Higher Strengths ..............................................................................................................................8Task 2. Evaluate the Effect of Deicing on Pervious Concrete Durability ...........................9Task 3. Determine the Need for Air Entrainment and the Effect of Air Entrainment on Durability .............................................................................................................................9Task 4. Workability and Curing Studies ..............................................................................9Task 5. Abrasion Resistance Rests and Test Development ...............................................10Task 6. Clogging and Permeability Test Development .....................................................10Task 7. Overlay Design Procedures Development ............................................................10Task 8. Field Trials ............................................................................................................10Task 9. Noise Studies .........................................................................................................11Task 10. Preparation of Final Report .................................................................................11

    CHAPTER 3. APPROPRIATENESS AND EFFECT OF AIR ENTRAINMENT ON PERVIOUS CONCRETE DURABILITY ........................................................................12

    Introduction ........................................................................................................................12Material Properties and Mixture Proportions ....................................................................12Sample Preparation ............................................................................................................13Testing Procedures .............................................................................................................14Results and Discussion ......................................................................................................15Conclusions on Air Entrainment ........................................................................................22

  • vi

    CHAPTER 4. DEVLOPMENT OF A METHOD TO DETERMINE WORKABILITY .............23

    Introduction ........................................................................................................................23Gyratory Test Method Development .................................................................................24

    Device Modification ..............................................................................................24Determination of the Maximum Number of Gyrations .........................................24Characterization of Workability Using the Gyratory Compaction Curve .............26

    Mixture Proportioning and Processing ..............................................................................28Test Results ........................................................................................................................28

    General Properties of the Pervious Concrete Specimens .......................................28Factors That Influence Pervious Concrete Workability .........................................30Effect of Binder-to-Aggregate Ratio .....................................................................30Effect of Water-to-Cement Ratio ...........................................................................31Effect of Mixing Time ...........................................................................................32Classification of Pervious Concrete Placeability ...................................................34

    Conclusions from Workability Test Development ............................................................35

    CHAPTER 5. DEVLEOPMENT OF PERVIOUS CONCRETE MIXTURES FOR MECHANIZED PLACEMENT ........................................................................................36

    Concrete Materials and Mixture Proportions .....................................................................37Testing Procedures .............................................................................................................40

    Strength and Durability ..........................................................................................41Sample Placement and Compaction Density .........................................................41

    Results and Discussion ......................................................................................................41Workability and Strength Performance .................................................................43The Selected PCPC Mixture and Properties ..........................................................47Freeze-Thaw Durability and Surface Durability ....................................................48

    Mixture Proportioning Conclusions ...................................................................................49

    CHAPTER 6. EFFECT OF CURING ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND SURFACE DURABILITY ...................................................................................................................51

    Introduction ........................................................................................................................51Testing Procedures .............................................................................................................51Abrasion of Reference Concrete ........................................................................................53Field Trial Mixture Proportions .........................................................................................54Sample Preparation and Curing .........................................................................................55Results and Discussion ......................................................................................................58Conclusions from the Curing Evaluation ...........................................................................61

    CHAPTER 7. EFFECT OF DEICERS ON PERVIOUS CONCRETE DURABILITY ...............62

    Introduction ........................................................................................................................62Materials and Mixture Proportions ....................................................................................63

    Concrete Materials .................................................................................................63Deicing Chemicals .................................................................................................63Sample Preparation and Test Methods ..................................................................63

  • vii

    Saturated Test Method ...........................................................................................64Drained Test Method .............................................................................................65

    Results and Discussion .......................

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