America’s Freedom. Kimberly Verduzco-Epperson July 17, 2012. What is Freedom?. Freedom, Independence, and Liberty refer to an absence of undue restrictions and an opportunity to exercise one’s rights, powers, desires, or the like Freedom means belonging to a group or community of free people - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Americas FreedomKimberly Verduzco-EppersonJuly 17, 2012The Revolutionary War was between 1775-1783 but by 1774 each colony had established a Provincial Congress or an equivalent governmental institution to govern itself but still considered part of the British Empire. They already had more freedom than any other country and they were economically prospering.1What is Freedom?Freedom, Independence, and Liberty refer to an absence of undue restrictions and an opportunity to exercise ones rights, powers, desires, or the likeFreedom means belonging to a group or community of free peopleIndependence implies a lack of restrictions as well as the ability to stand aloneLiberty, often interchanged with freedom, also implies exercise of freedom; separate from an enslaved entityFreedom comes from the Latin root for friend. Liberty comes from the Latin root for free.2
1754 French and Indian WarThe French & Indian War Britian taxed the colonies to pay for the war.1756-17633
1754 1765French and Indian War
Stamp ActStamp Act required colonists to pay a tax (in the form of a stamp) on printed documents, various licenses, and other goods. Colonists rebelled and terrorized British tax collectors4
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Townshend ActThe Townshend Acts were a series of laws passed beginning in 1767 by the Parliament of Great Britain relating to the British colonies in North America. The acts are named after Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who proposed the program.five laws are frequently mentioned: the Revenue Act of 1767, the Indemnity Act, the Commissioners of Customs Act, the Vice Admiralty Court Act, and the New York Restraining Act. The purpose of the Townshend Acts was to raise revenue in the colonies to pay the salaries of governors and judges so that they would be independent of colonial rule, to create a more effective means of enforcing compliance with trade regulations, to punish the province of New York for failing to comply with the 1765 Quartering Act, and to establish the precedent that the British Parliament had the right to tax the colonies. The Townshend Acts were met with resistance in the colonies, prompting the occupation of Boston by British troops in 1768, which eventually resulted in the Boston Massacre of 1770.5
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Townshend ActBoston MassacreThe Boston Massacre, called the Incident on King Street by the British, was an incident on March 5, 1770, in which British Army soldiers killed five civilian men and injured six others6
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Boston Tea Party Boston MassacreTea Party (6/16/73 & 3/7/74) $3 millionTea ActBy reducing the tax on imported British tea, this act gave British merchants an unfair advantage in selling their tea in America. American colonists condemned the act, and many planned to boycott tea.Boston Tea PartyWhen British tea ships arrived in Boston harbor, many citizens wanted the tea sent back to England without the payment of any taxes. The royal governor insisted on payment of all taxes. On December 16, a group of men disguised as Indians boarded the ships and dumped all the tea in the harbor.
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First Continental Congress
Boston Tea Party Boston MassacreThe First Continental Congress brought together representatives from each of the colonies, except Georgia, to discuss their response to the British "Intolerable Acts. They met in Sept 1774 and again in May 1775; The purpose of the First Continental Congress was not to seek independence from Britain.
1754 1765 1767 1770 1773 1774 1776French and Indian War
First Continental CongressSecond Continental Congress
Boston Tea Party Boston MassacreFormally declared independence from Britain; Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence9OverviewBy the late eighteenth century, Americans enjoyed more liberties than most people in the world, and they paid lower taxes than the subjects of any other European stateThey came together from very disparate regions and societies because they found common ground in their grievances, their concerns about tyranny, and their notions of self-determination the concepts of liberty and self-representation were lodged in the hearts and minds of the Patriots, the only remaining course of action was Parliamentary compromise or war; Long before the Revolution was ever waged on the battlefields at Lexington, Saratoga, or Yorktown, it was decided in the mansions of the Virginia gentry, the pulpits of the churches, the town halls of New England and the backcountry of TN
10Overview (cont)The masses were acting upon their conceptualization of liberty and its meaningPolitical philosophies of the Enlightenment were now articulated in simple, easy-to-read pamphlets by revolutionaries like the Englishman Thomas PaineGlobal Age of RevolutionsCommon Sense; centuries-old monarchy of France; world's first black republic, created after slaves revolted in Haiti in 1791. In 1819, Simon Bolvar would carry the torch of independence from Haiti to his homeland in Venezuela, and the South American republics followed, then Mexico in 1821, and so on11Different Views, Same GoalEven though people came from completely different backgrounds they were able to fight as one for a common goal.WomenSaw a chance for more freedoms than they had with English ruleEconomically ChallengedSaw ways in which they could become more efficient, economical, and be a part of the larger society, by having a broader spectrum of people to trade withSlavesSaw a chance to win their freedoms either by fighting with the Americans or by escaping to fight for the British-nearly half a million enslaved Americans in 1760s
12Cost of the WarAbout 5,000 African American men and boys Families were separatedHomes, land, crops, live stock, livesU.S. troops engaged 217,000Dead 7,200 in battle 10,000 from disease or exposure 8,500 in British prisons1775-1783 $101 millionFY2011$2,407 million
Washington did not receive pay for his military service. Food and winter clothing was limited; 2010 values of money. George Washington rarely had even 15,000 men under his command at a time.
13What did America win?Freedom to self governEngland no longer had the right to grant or deny freedomsA government that served and protected the peopleThe beginning of a society dedicated to the concept of Liberty and Equality for allif it failed to do so, people could revolt and establish a new government that served their interest
14First AmendmentBefore the Revolutionary War, America was a nation divided by different faiths. But when the war for independence sparked in 1776, colonists united under the banner of religious freedom. Evangelical frontiersmen and Deist intellectuals set aside their differences to defend a belief they shared, the right to worship freely. KiddParliament stops group meetings and bans people from expressing opinions of elected officials
Freedom of religion, speech, press, and assembly
15Second AmendmentThe colonists in the Boston Massacre were unable to carry weapons and thus had to protect themselves against British Soldiers with sticks and stones.The soldiers were sent to confiscate all of the colonists arms and ammunitions in Lexington.The right to bear arms.
The shot heard around the world April 19, 177516Third AmendmentWhen Britain sent troops to control the colonies, the colonists were forced to open their homes to the soldiers.Right to refuse quartering of soldiers.
Fourth AmendmentThe soldiers were allowed to come into the homes of colonists and take whatever they wanted and the colonists had no way of fighting back.The right to protect against unlawful search and seizure.The Beginning of The EndSecond Continental Congress declared Americas Independence in July 1776 when Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence.Bibliographywww.shmoop.com/american-revolution/resourcesWiki.answers.comwww.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/us39God of Liberty: A Religious History of the American Revolution, by Thomas S. Kiddwww.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RS22926.pdfwww.boston-tea-party.org/timeline.html