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The Second International Congress Non-Ferrous Metals 2010, September 24, Krasnoyarsk, Russia Contents

PART II. PROCESSES OF LEAD-ZINC ORE MINING AND PROCESSING METHODSCommercialization of Kivcet Process in China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 V.A. Shumskiy Environmetnal Aspects of Development of New Lead-Zinc Deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 S.P. Kiseleva, I.F. Marchenkov, N.S. Parilova, A.E. Arkusha Prospects of Development of The Technology of Hot-Dip Zinc Coating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 A.A. Bitsura Technological Features and Prospects of Development of Ozerninsky Ore Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 S.G. Fedorov, A.S. Baranov State and Perspectives of Developmentof The Republic of Kazakhstan Zinc Industry . . . . . . . . . . . 66 N.N. Ushakov, A.I. Ananin, V.A. Shumskiy, N.M. Ni High Purity Electrolytic Lead Form Low Grade Crude Lead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Xiao Weisong, Xu Bin, Li Zhiwen, Zhao Qinsheng

The Second International Congress Non-Ferrous Metals 2010 Part II Processes Of Lead-Zinc Ore Mining And Processing Methods

COMMERCIALIZATION OF KIVCET PROCESS IN CHINAV.A. Shumskiy State Affiliate The Eastern Mining and Metallurgical Research Institute for Non-ferrous Metals Republic State Affiliate National Enterprise of Complex Processing for Mineral and Raw Material of the Republic of Kazakhstan (SA VNIItsvetmet RSA NE CPMRM RK), Ust-Kamenogorsk, Republic of Kazakhstan

In 2008 and 2009, VNIItsvetmet Institute signed License Agreements for purchasing of KIVCET technology with large metallurgical Chinese Companies Jiangxi Copper Corporation and Zhuzhou Smelter Group Co. At present, two lead plants with annual production capacity of 100 000 and 120 000 tons of lead, using KIVCET process for lead bullion smelting from different raw materials, are designed for these companies. The report reviews some aspects of KIVCET process commercialization in China, including specific details of the designed KIVCET units. Introduction Quick development of industry in China during last years is accompanied by large-scale projects for construction of new industrial enterprises and modernization of existing plants. Within a framework of state regulation of this process, programs for modernization of metallurgical industry of PRC are realized. The goals of such programs are the following: elimination of small, technically worn-out and technologically old metallurgical plants, which are dangerous for environment and people; construction of new or modernization of the existing large metallurgical plants on the basis of modern, highly-productive and environmentally safe processes; increasing of metal production output to meet the requirements of developing processing industry of the Country (building and construction industry, transport industry, manufacturing engineering, instrumentation engineering and others). Foreign advanced technologies are widely used for realization of these programs. As a rule, well-known brands, approved in leading world metallurgical enterprises, are used. It allows to reduce risks and to accelerate development of innovations. In process of modernization of Chinese metallurgical industry, much attention is devoted to upgrading of conventional lead production industry. 1. Modernization of Chinese Lead Industry The following environmental factors have considerable influence on relevance of lead industry modernization: country-wide use of environmentally-damaging sintering blast furnace smelting process in lead plants of China in conditions of general aggravation of environmental situation in regions, where such plants are located; production of significant amount of lead bullion in numerous backyard and low capacity plants, having low efficiency, high consumption of materials, not complying with sanitary regulations and environmental standards. That is why modernization program foresees solving of 2 main issues: 1) elimination of backyard and low capacity lead plants; 2) change of technologies, used in lead plants, into advanced, more environmentally safe and efficient processes of lead raw materials direct smelting. For solution of the first problem, state modernization program foresees minimum permissible lead plant production capacity in PRC; it is 50 thousand tons per year for primary lead and 10 thousand tons for secondary lead production. Lead plants, having lower production output of metal than limited by state, have to be expanded or eliminated. Besides, construction of new lead plants with lower metal production output is prohibited.


The Second International Congress Non-Ferrous Metals 2010 Part II Processes Of Lead-Zinc Ore Mining And Processing Methods

Solution of second problem is accomplished by systematic introduction of commercialized (i. e. at stage of industrial exploitation) processes of direct lead raw materials smelting. Five processes of such kind are used in world lead production, i. e.: Swedish process Kaldo (or TBRC); German process QSL; two types of Australian process TSL (Top Submerged Lance) Ausmelt and Isasmelt; Chinese process SKS (QSL is prototype); and KIVCET process, developed in Kazakhstan by VNIItsvetmet Institute. It shall be noticed that during the last 1012 years, four from the five above-mentioned commercialized processes have been implemented in Chinese lead plants: Western Mining Company started up new lead plant, having annual production capacity of 50 thousand tons of lead bullion, using Kaldo technology in Xining city, Qinghai Province. In 1997 [1], China Non-Ferrous Metals Corporation implemented QSL process in lead plant, having annual production capacity of 52 thousand tons of lead bullion, in Gansu Province (at present there is no information concerning its operation). In 2005 Yunnan Metallurgical Group Co. has started using Isasmelt process in lead plant, having annual production capacity of 70 thousand tons of lead bullion, in Qujing city, Yunnan Province. Henan Yuguang Gold and Lead Co. and Shuikoushan Non-Ferrous Metals Group Co. apply Chinese Process SKS in three lead plants having total annual production capacity of about 160 thousand tons of lead bullion. Application of such a quantity of different processes for lead smelting in one country is already phenomenon. Nevertheless, there are intentions to start up two new processes for direct lead smelting. Nanchang Engineering & Research Institute of Nonferrous Metals (NERIN), situated in capital of Jiangxi Province in Nanchang city, is developing and accomplishing pilot testing of new Chinese process for flash smelting. At present it is not clear if this process is similar to Finnish lead smelting technology Outokumpu (which has not been realized industrially) or to KIVCET process. Xinxiang Zhonglian Company with the assistance Central South University is going to implement one more direct lead smelting process in a bath with side blowing (the way it is called in China). This technology is based on Russian Vanyukov lead smelting process, invented by Moscow State Institute of Steel and Alloy (MSIS&A) long time ago, but not realized commercially yet. MSIS&A and Central South University accomplished testing of lead smelting in pilot-industrial Vanyukov furnace at casting and mechanical plant of this company from 2001 up to 2004. The Company is planning to construct new lead plant with annual production capacity of 60 thousand tons of lead bullion, using 2 cascaded furnaces with side blowing for lead smelting in liquid bath (analogue of Vanyukov furnace), in Xinxiang city, Shandong Province. Thus, lead industry of China is looking for new possibilities for intensive development and modernization. Herewith, interest area of the industry touches almost all the known and experimentally tested technologies of lead smelting. Until recent time, only KIVCET process was the exception of this rule. Among reasons of not using this technology, they called high expenditures and relatively low heat efficiency of jacketed KIVCET furnaces and necessity of using finely-grinded materials and intensive preliminary drying of charge. Nevertheless, Chinese companies kept watching commercialization experience of this technology abroad: Karachipampa (Bolivia, 1985), Ust-Kamenogorsk Lead and Zinc Complex (UK LZC, Kazakhstan, 1985), Portovesme (Italy, 1986), Trail (Canada, 1997). After KIVCET process proved to be environmentally safe and effective for smelting of wide range of lead raw materials, including materials with very high content of residues from zinc plants (unacceptable for other technologies), two large Chinese metallurgical companies Jiangxi Copper Corporation and Zhuzhou Smelter Group Co. have purchased licensees for KIVCET during 20082009. 2. Specific Characteristics of Current Lead Smelting Processes To understand the reason of KIVCET process advantages in respect to quality range of processing raw materials, allowing it to penetrate into Chinese lead technologies market, it is necessary to look at specific characteristics of current lead smelting processes. At present, only two methods of direct smelting are used commercially (or tested in pilotplant trials): 1) bubbling smelting in liquid bath, using different ways of air-oxygen blast injection into liquid bath and 2) flash smelting of powdered raw materials, fed through burners with oxygen-bearing gas flow. Herewith, all lead smelting technologies unlike similar technologies for smelting of copper raw materials shall realize not only oxidation stage, but also significantly more slow reduction stage of the process for getting ac