Aerospace Vehicles Know the types of civilian and military aerospace vehicles. 1. Identify the types of civilian aircraft. 2. Identify the types of military aircraft. 3. Identify the types of rockets and missiles.
Civilian Aircraft Subcategories Air carrier aircraft: Civilian aircraft flown by airlines on a regular basis. General aviation aircraft: All civilian aircraft used for other than government or air carrier purposes. Government aircraft: All civilian aircraft used by any federal, state, or local government agency other than the military.
Civilian Aircraft Air Carriers The companies generally referred to as commercial airlines. Commuter air carriers and carriers that transport only cargo. Considered common carriers along with the railroads, bus lines, and steamships; because they serve the public, they are very closely regulated and controlled.
Civilian Aircraft Major Carriers The 12 largest air carriers with at least $1 billion in annual operating revenue. Among the oldest airlines in the United States, some dating back to the Kelly Act of 1925 and the McNaryWatres Act of 1930. Most major air carriers also fly medium or short-length feeder routes between medium- size cities and large metropolitan areas.
Civilian Aircraft Boeing 747
Civilian Aircraft Boeing 707
Civilian Aircraft McDonnell Douglas DC-8 The first DC-8s also flew in the late 1950s and like the 707s have undergone many model changes. The 60 Series is a stretched version and can carry up to 259 passengers. The last version, Series 70, had different engines that improved efficiency. The last aircraft was delivered in 1972.
Civilian Aircraft Lockheed L-1011
Civilian Aircraft Airbus A-300
Civilian Aircraft National Carriers This category includes those airlines that have revenues greater than $100 million and less than $1 billion. National carriers normally fly short to medium routes to cities that do not generate large numbers of passengers. The number of airlines classified as national carriers changes almost monthly. There are currently 32 national carriers listed in the United States.
Civilian Aircraft Boeing 727
Civilian Aircraft Boeing 737
Civilian Aircraft McDonnell Douglas DC-9/MD-80
Civilian Aircraft Boeing 757
Civilian Aircraft Regional/Commuter Carriers This category includes airlines with operating revenues less than $100 million. The Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 was good for the regional commuter carriers. The average trip length for commuter airlines is about 100 miles with an average passenger load of 10. Regional air carriers are divided into three subgroups.
Civilian Aircraft General Aviation This segment is the largest in terms of number of aircraft, pilots, and miles flown. In 1999, the general aviation fleet flew a total of 28.1 million hours compared to 13.6 million hours by U.S. air carriers. General aviation came to the rescue when Hurricane Andrew hit southern Dade County, Florida.
Civilian Aircraft General Aviation General aviation aircraft are divided into four categories: business aviation, instructional aviation, personal aviation, and commercial aviation.
Civilian Aircraft Business Aviation This category, in terms of hours flown, accounts for 27 percent of the total hours flown by general aviation aircraft. This includes all general aviation flying done specifically for business purposes using aircraft owned by the business. It is usually divided into two groups according to who is flying the aircraft.
Civilian Aircraft Instructional Aviation Instructional aviation deals with aircraft used specifically to teach someone to fly. It accounts for about 16 percent of all hours flown. 95 percent of the instructional aircraft have single, reciprocating engines, but there must be an instructional aircraft for every type of flying. An individual wanting to fly must go to a certified flight instructor (CFI).
Civilian Aircraft Cessna 152 Basic trainer that replaced the time-proven Cessna 150. The Cessna 152 is 24 feet long, has a 33-foot wingspan, and has a maximum gross weight of 1,670 pounds. At 800 feet, using 75 percent power, the 152 will cruise at 100 mph for about 650 miles.
Civilian Aircraft Personal Aviation The decade of the 80s was devastating for personal aviation. The production of aircraft fell from a high of 17,811 in 1978 to a low of 1,085 in 1987. Many of the companies, such as Beech, Cessna, and Piper were either not producing personal aircraft or limited the number of models produced.
Civilian Aircraft Cessna 172 Skyhawk This aircraft was built by Cessna Aircraft Company with a 160 horsepower engine. It has fixed landing gear, can carry a payload of 950 pounds, has a cruising speed of 135 mph, and has a maximum cruising range of 695 miles.
Civilian Aircraft Commercial Aviation Commercial aviation is another term that causes a lot of confusion. A segment of general aviation that uses general aviation aircraft for hire as a commercial (moneymaking) business. Commercial aviation is subdivided into aircraft that produce income by transporting people or cargo on demand (air taxi and charter) and aircraft that generate income with no transportation function involved.
Civilian Aircraft Rental Aircraft This is the use of an aircraft where a licensed pilot rents or leases an aircraft for his or her personal use. Depending on the aircraft, a rental may cost from $50 per hour to over $1,000 per hour.
Civilian Aircraft Agricultural Aircraft Currently, almost 6,000 airplanes and 400 helicopters seed, fertilize, and apply pesticides to almost 300 million acres of farmland. One airplane can seed more acreage in an hour than a tractor can in a whole day. Agricultural aircraft face some very special requirements. Helicopters are being used more and more in agricultural applications.
Civilian Aircraft Aerial Advertising Aircraft towing banners over sporting events, fairs, and festivals is a common type of advertising. Another example is advertising on blimps like the Goodyear blimp. Dirigibles are often leased by one of the major television networks to give an aerial view of major sporting events. Another method of advertising that is seen less often is skywriting.
Civilian Aircraft Aerial photography has developed from taking simple pictures from the air to highly specialized photography using special film. The big advantage of aerial photography is that a simple picture can cover a large area (often hundreds of square miles). Using infrared film and special filters, aerial photography can be used to spot and map crop damage.
Civilian Aircraft Aircraft are used to battle forest fires. These aircraft are used to deliver people and equipment into remote areas and to drop fire- retardant chemicals on the blaze. Many World War II-type aircraft, such as the TBM torpedo bomber, the B-17, and the PBY Catalina, are used for these missions. All of them are very stable, can fly very slowly, and can carry large payloads.
Civilian Aircraft Helicopters are being used in oil fields to carry and place large loads as well as transport people and cargo. This is particularly true for offshore oil rigs. The logging operations in Washington and Oregon provide one of the most fascinating uses of helicopters.
Civilian Aircraft Government Aviation This category includes aircraft operated by any government agency (federal, state, or local) other than the military services. Often, government aviation is placed in the general aviation category. However, government aviation is listed separately for several reasons.
Civilian Aircraft Government Aviation Most federal agencies own and operate aircraft that are used for a variety of purposes. The Coast Guard uses many of its aircraft for search and rescue. They are tasked with the offshore and rescue for downed aircraft as well as vessels in distress. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) operates many types of research aircraft which are used to flight-test new aeronautic concepts.
Military Aircraft It was during World War II that aircraft became an important part of military strategy. The airplane dominated all aspects of warfare, from bombardment to invasion and even naval battles. In the age of nuclear weapons, a new type of war has developed--the limited war. Military aircraft were developed to deter a major nuclear war and to win a limited war, if necessary.