Advanced Avian Orthopedics

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Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Goals Proper triage Prognosis and repair options for various fractures Post-op care and protocols Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference

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Advanced Avian Orthopedics
Doha, QatarJan 26-28, 2016 Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Goals Proper triage Prognosis and repair options for various fractures Post-op care and protocols Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Why bother? We are generally dealing with healthy birds Prognosis can be quite good Recovery can be very dramatic Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Factors affecting prognosis
Bone exposure Proximity to a joint Chronicity is the patient emaciated? Our patients have to be close to perfect for a successful outcome. Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Immediate needs/goals
Stabilize the bird Immobilize bones Prevent desiccation Prevent further stress andinjury Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Stabilization Most fractures are not immediately fatal, but shockand stress are. Warm fluids SQ BID/TID Pain control with meloxicam and butorphanol Start antibiotics if open fracture or if surgery will beneeded Enrofloxacin +/- clindamycin Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Wound care Use anesthesia Warm NaCl or LRS is always best Wear gloves! Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Bone exposure Must prevent desiccation by covering with skin, ifpossible. THIS IS AN EMERGENCY Can use temporary sutures if necessary Can also use collagen/gel dressings Use Duoderm saline-soaked Telfa does NOT work! Start systemic antibiotics (enrofloxacin + clindamycin) Surgery ASAP Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Stabilization Figure 8 bandage for ulna/radius/metacarpal fractures Figure 8 + body wrap for humerus and coracoidfractures Padded splint +/- ball wrap for fractures distal to theknee Not much can be done for femur fractures. Surgeryindicated ASAP. Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Orthopedic supplies Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Orthopedic supplies Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
A few more points Examine entire bird including eyes. Dont want to put a bird thru surgery if it is blind. If surgery is necessary, do it quickly. Ideally within 2-3 days of admission Goal is within 24 hours Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Ulna fracture Probably most commonfracture Usually a closed fracture If alignment ok, figure-8bandage and PT may beenough IM pin +/- ESF Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Ulna fracture post-op
Goal is to Prevent callus from bridgingto the radius Provide reasonable alignment Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Ulna fracture bad pin placement
Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Ulna fracture Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Ulna fracture IM-ESF Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Ulna/radius combo fracture
Almost always open withmassive soft tissue trauma Very difficult to splint.Needs surgeryimmediately. Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Ulna/radius combo fracture
Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Ulna/radius combo fracture
Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Ulna/radius combo fracture
Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Ulna/radius combo post-op
Staged removal ofimplants IM pin in ulna IM pin placed in radius butthis can interfere with thewrist joint Remove it early (2-3 weeks) Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Extremely comminuted Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
5 weeks later Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Dont rush into surgery
Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
4 days later Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
No surgery required Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Humerus fractures Very variable. Midshaft, distal, proximal Transverse, oblique Comminuted or simple Can have severe soft tissue trauma. Severe muscle contracture common. Bone exposure VERY common Immediate stabilization requires afigure-8 wrap + body wrap. Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Anatomy radial nerve Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Long oblique, midshaft Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference IM-ESF + cerclage wires
Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference External fixator configurations
Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Highly comminuted Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Highly comminuted Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference External fixator tie-in
Disadvantages Technically more challenging. Placing pins can cause damage. Increased surgical time More pin tracts to take care of Very difficult/impossible in small birds? Advantages Fixation is MUCH more rigid Can remove wrap sooner ( 2 days vs 3 weeks). Definitely the treatment of choice Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Distal humerus fracture
Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Distal humeral fracture
Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Metacarpal fracture Figure-8 wrap can work. IM pin for proximal orunstable fractures. IM-ESF in larger birds? Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Metacarpal fracture Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Coracoid fracture Window strikes Very difficult to palpate Surgery is NOT indicated Treat with figure-8 +body wrap for 3 weekswith intermittent PT OR justcage rest. Prognosis is very good Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Coracoid fracture Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Coracoid fracture Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Femur fracture Large muscle mass. Can bemissed on physical exam. Usually midshaft Bumblefoot can result inopposite foot if notadequately stabilized. Splints/wraps are noteffective Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Femur fracture IM pin will migrate/fallout. THIS DOES NOTWORK WELL. External fixator tie-inMUCH more rigid. Should blunt the pin at thestifle Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Femur fracture tie-in fixator
Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Femur fracture tie-in fixator
Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Femur fracture tie-in fixator
Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Femur fracture Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Femur fracture IM-ESF
Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Tibiotarsus IM pin + ESF is usually best choice IM-pin + shuttle pin is also an option ESF alone does not work well Pin placement can be difficult Severe swelling large soft tissue mass Tibiotarsus has odd cross-section Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Tibiotarsus Turkey vulture
Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Tibiotarsus Red-shouldered hawk
Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Tibiotarsus - Red-shouldered hawk
Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Tarsometatarsus Very little soft tissue covering. Tissue distal tofracture can become necrotic if blood supplyis compromised. Toe swelling is bad prognostic indicator. Temporary padded splint +/- ball wrap +/-coat-hanger side bars can be effectivetemporarily or in very young birds. Bumblefoot can result in opposite foot if notadequately stabilized. Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Tarsometatarsus Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Tarsometatarsus TM has a C-shaped cross-section. Must be very careful when placing pins. Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Tarsometatarsus Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference Qatar 2nd International Falcons Veterinary Conference
Implant removal Pull pin wh