Orthopedics Terminology

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Orthopaedics Terminology

Prof. Salem Al-Zahrani

Varus Bent


inward, denoting a deformity in which the angulations of the part is toward midline of the body . The term varus is adjective and should be used only in connection with name it describe like : Talipes varus, Genu varum, coxa vara.

Valgus Bent


inward , twisted. Denoting deformity in which angulations of the part is a way from midline of the body. Like : Talipes valgus, genu valgum, coxa valga.

F.D. :Fixed deformity, which cannot be corrected by manipulation.

FFD : Fixed flexion deformity.

Recarvatum : abnormal hyperextension , usually applied to the knee and elbow.

Scoliosis .

An abnormal lateral deviation in normally straight vertical line of the spine.


Abnormally increased convexity of the curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side.



Anterior convexity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side.

Malrotation Abnormal

or pathological rotation as in the vertebral column. failure of normal rotation of an organ as of the gut.

Anteversion The

forward tipping or tilting of an organ. displacement in which the organ is tipped forward but is not bent at an angle as occur in anteflexion.

Pes cavus & pes planus Pes : the foot, the terminal organ of the leg orlower limb. used also as general term to designate a foot like part.

Pes planus

Flat foot ,deformed foot in which the position of the bones relative to each other Has been altered with lowering of the longitudinal arch.

Pes cavus

Exaggerated height of the longitudinal arch of the foot. appear at birth or later because of contracture or disturbed balance of muscles.


The foot is planter flexed causing the person to walk on toes without touching the heels.

Genu (Valgus Varus ) Geno

: combining from denoting relationship to reproduction or sex. Knee General term used to designate any anatomical structure bent like the knee.

Genu :

Genu valgus

Deformity in which the knee are abnormally close together and the space between ankles is increased. known as knock knee.

Genu varus

Deformity in which the knees are abnormally separated and lower extremities are bowed inwardly . the deformity may be in leg or thigh or both. known as bowleg.

Halux Big

toe, great toe, first toe

Halux valgus

Angulations of the big toe away from the midline of the body or toward the other toes.

Halux varus Angulations

of the big toe toward the midline of the body or away from other toes.

Cubitus :


Cubitus Valgus : deformity of the elbow (judges with palm facing forward) in which deviates away from the midline of the body when extended. Cubitus varus : deformity of the elbow due to lateral angulation of the joint and accompanied by deviation of the forearm toward the midline of the body when the forearm is extended.

Coxa : hip

Coxa magna: broadening of the head and the neck of the femur.

Coxa vara

Deformity of the hip in which the angle formed by the neck of the femur and the shaft is reduced.

Coxa valga Deformity

of the hip in which the angle formed by axis of the head and neck of the femur and the shaft is increased.

CTEV : club foot.C : congenital T : Talipes. E : Equino V : Varus inversion of the foot, adduction of the forefoot related to hind foot, plantar flexion.

CTCV :C : congenital T : Talipes C : Calcaneo V : valgus. the foot in rest in a position of eversion and dorsiflexion.

Mal union

Applied to the fracture which has united soundly but in wrong position.

Non union

The fracture ends dont unite but remain separated.

Delayed union

Fracture take longer time to unite than normal, but eventually does so.

Bone resorption ( )A

type bone loss due to osteoclastic activity, release of bone salts into extracellular fluid.

Osteopenia Reduced

bone mass due to decrease in the rate of osteoid synthesis to level insufficient to compensate normal bone lysis.




A condition characterized by a decreased mass per unit volume (density) of normally mineralized bone matrix.

Lytic lesion



Lesion : , Any pathological or traumatic discontinuity of tissue or loss of function of a part. Lytic : a ward termination denoting lysis of the substance indicated by the stem to which it is affixed.

Sclerotic lesion

An induration or hardening especially hardening of a part from inflammation and in diseases of interstitial substance.


Monoplegia Diplegia Triplegia Tetraplegia Hemiplagia Paraplegia

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