Adult Learning Ppt

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<p>Adult learning</p> <p>Adult learningLearning is the process whereby individuals acquire knowledge, skills&amp; attitudes through experience reflection study or instruction.</p> <p>A ChallengePlease write a one sentence definition of Adult Learners.</p> <p>Definition By definition of an adult is someone who has achieved the self concept of being responsible for their own life.</p> <p>Historical Roots of Adult Learning Principles Since the 1970s, adult learning theory has offered a framework for educators and trainers whose job it is to train adults. Malcolm S. Knowles (1973) was among the first proponents of this approach. In his book, The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species, he resurrected the word "andragogy" a term popular in German education circles in the early 1800s, and used it to label his attempt to create a unified theory of adult learning. Knowles' contentions were based on four assumptions:</p> <p> 1. As they mature, adults tend to prefer self-direction. The role of the instructor is to engage in a process of inquiry, analysis, and decision-making with adult learners, rather than to transmit knowledge.</p> <p> 2. Adults' experiences are a rich resource for learning. Active participation in planned experiencessuch as discussions or problem solving exercises, an analysis of those experiences, and their application to work or life situationsshould be the core methodology for training adults. Adults learn and retain information more easily if they can relate it to their reservoir of past experiences</p> <p> 3 Adults are aware of specific learning needs generated by real-life events such as marriage, divorce, parenting, taking a new job, losing a job, and so on. Adult learners' needs and interests are the starting points and serve as guideposts for training activities.</p> <p> 4. Adults are competency-based learners, meaning that they want to learn a skill or acquire knowledge that they can apply pragmatically to their immediate circumstances. Life or work-related situations present a more appropriate framework for adult learning than academic or theoretical approaches.</p> <p>Principles and issues of adult learning</p> <p>Principles of learning have relevance for designing the content &amp; format of training &amp; development programmes. Some of the relevant principles are 1.Reinforcement: learnt material that leads to some kind of reward or reinforcement is more likely to be retained than material which leads to punishment or no reward. 2.Motivation: greater efficiency in learning occurs when the learner is motivated to learn i.e. learning satisfies some needs of the individual participant undergoing training.</p> <p>3. Knowledge of results: providing information to the learners about the effectiveness of their learning is to provide knowledge of results. It is fundamental principle of learning that one correct response leads to increased effort expended on the next repetition. 4. Active practice: learning requires opportunity for repetition &amp; practice. Repetition of mistake can lead to permanent negative learning. New concepts require repetition if they have to become a permanent part. 5. Whole verses part learning: this principles suggest that learning large selfcontains units of a task is preferable to learning small segmented parts.</p> <p>6. Transfer of training: material learnt during the training experience should have relevance for the job situation. Role playing is an effective procedure from the stand point of training what is learnt in training to actual job behavior. None of these principles of learning are implied to be applicable to all situation circumstances. The basic issues underlying these principles could be better understood with the help of the hierarchy of human learning from simple to the most complex.</p> <p>Hierarchy of learning1 signal learningIndividual learns to make a general diffuse response to signal (Pavlov's conditioned response).</p> <p>2 stimulus-response (s-r) learning 3 chaining 4 verbal association</p> <p>Person acquires a precise response to discriminated stimulus. Learner acquires a chain of 2 or more s-r connections Individual learns chains that are verbal.</p> <p>5 multiple discrimination</p> <p>persona learns to make a variety of identifying response to as many different stimulti,which resemble each other.</p> <p>6 concept learning</p> <p>Learner acquires the ability to make a common response to class of stimuli differing from each other. Person chains together 2 or more concepts to establish a process Individual chains principles together in a kind of learning requiring the internal events usually called learning.</p> <p>7 principle learning 8 problem solving</p> <p>Adult Learning Theory How do adults learn?Adults need to do something concrete or have an experience Adults observe, think about what they have done (or about their experience) and how they reacted to it</p> <p>Tests and applies to actual work or life situations. If he can his learning is long-lasting. If he cannot, his learning is short-lived</p> <p>He absorbs what he has felt and observed, comes up with a conceptual framework and relates it to his past knowledge/experience</p> <p>Adult Learning Theory</p> <p>Learning experience Observe and reflect Experiment and integrate Generalize and conceptualize</p> <p>People learn faster and better when:1. When they want to learn and know it is imp. to learn 2. Believe that learning will help in real ways 3. Are in supportive environment free from threat 4. Are provided information in several different ways 5. Learn by doing the task 6. Have a chance to practice what they learned 7. Given feedback on their performance 8. Are praised when they do well 9. Adult learning involves the ego so they need peer support and to reduce fear of judgment during learning</p> <p>Summary of principles of adult learning</p> <p> Adults</p> <p>need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instruction Experience, incl. mistakes, provide the basis for learning activities Adults are more interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance to their job or personal life Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented</p> <p>Andragogy vs. Pedagogy Pedagogy is teacher-centered and subject-centered, while andragogy is student-centered.</p> <p> Whoever adults are, they need to be taught by methods which acknowledge and respect the fact that they are adults and not children.</p> <p>PedagogyThe pedagogical model derived from the Greek words, ped meaning child and agogus meaning leader so pedagogy means that art and science of teaching children.</p> <p>The term Andragogy was coined by researchers of adult learning in order to contrast their beliefs about learning to the pedagogical model. Malcolm Knowles first introduced the concept in the US in 1968. The concept of andragogy implies self-directedness and an active student role, as well as solution-centered activities. It was derived from the Greek word aner (with the stem andr-) meaning man, not boy.</p> <p>DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CHILDREN AND ADULTS AS LEARNERS CHILDRENRely on others to decide what is important to be learned. Accept the important being presented at face value.</p> <p>ADULTSDecide for themselves what important to be learned. Need to validate the information based on their beliefs and experience.</p> <p>Expect what they are learning to be useful in their long-term future. Have little or no experience upon which to draw are relatively clean slates.</p> <p>Expect what they are learning to be immediately useful Have much experience upon which to draw may have fixed viewpoints.</p> <p>Little ability to serve as a knowledgeable resource to teacher or fellow classmates.</p> <p>Significant ability to serve a knowledgeable resource to trainer and fellow learners</p> <p>Programmed instruction: A pedagogical methodThis is a result of extensive research &amp; laboratory tests. It is one of the pedagogical methods, which is used for the trainees for various need in varying contexts. A lot of thrust is put on the communication. This is a method whereby the trainee teaches himself by working through a series of steps all leading to carefully defined goals or objectives. Who are involved ? Programme writer or the programmer. The hiring organization The target population</p> <p>Roles &amp; objectives of PIThe sequential steps are to be carefully designed by the programmer looking at the training need, the detailed information about the subject like his ability to learn, his skill level, knowledge base etc.,</p> <p>Positive features of PI1 it consists of skills, capacities &amp; knowledge which is desirable by the top mgt. for its employees to have, so that goals can be better achieved. 2 it consists of measurable changes in behaviour. 3 it is not abstract. It is used basically to impart skills of relevance on a job or work place.</p> <p>Benefits of PI Reduced training time Decentralization of training Improved in morale &amp; desire to learn P &amp;L basis for training Promotion &amp; public learning Sufficient utilization of expensive equipments Identifying the lost sales</p> <p>Andragogy vs. PedagogyWhat Is Andragogy? Andragogy consists of learning strategies focused on teaching adults. It is often interpreted as the process of engaging adult learners in the structure of the learning experience.</p> <p> Andragogy, initially defined as "the art and science of helping adults learn," The andragogic model asserts that five issues be considered and addressed in formal learning. They include (1) letting learners know why something is important to learn, (2) showing learners how to direct themselves through information, and (3) relating the topic to the learners' experiences. In addition, (4) people will not learn until they are ready and motivated to learn. Often this (5) requires helping them overcome inhibitions, behaviors, and beliefs about learning.</p> <p>Andragogy vs. PedagogyTheory of Adult Education The term Andragogy was originally used by Alexander Kapp (a German educator) in 1833, and was developed into a theory of adult education by the American educator, Malcolm Knowles.</p> <p>Malcolm KnowlesTheory of Adult Education Knowles' theory can be stated as four simple postulates: Adults need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instruction. Experience (including mistakes) provides the basis for learning activities.</p> <p>Malcolm KnowlesTheory of Adult Education Adults are most interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance to their job or personal life. Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented (Orientation to learning).</p> <p>Andragogy is based on four crucial assumptions about the characteristics of adult learners that are different from the assumptions about child learners.</p> <p>As persons mature, their self concept moves from being a dependent personality toward one of being a self-directing human being they accumulate a growing reservoir of experience that becomes an increasing resource for learning their readiness to learn becomes oriented increasingly to the developmental tasks of their social roles, and their time perspective changes from one of postponed application of knowledge to immediacy of application.</p> <p>Andorgogy can be defined as an organized effort to assist adults to learn in a way that enhances their capacity to function as self directed learners. To do this the trainer should; - Assist the learners to define their learning needs - Design learning events to suit an individual learners entry behaviour - Help the learner to understand how to use learning resources - Emphasize experimental &amp; participative training methods - Facilitate problem posing, solving &amp; participative training methods - Progressively decrees the learners dependency on the trainer - Assist learners to assume increasing responsibility for planning their own learning - Reinforce the self-concept of the learner to encourage achievements of objectives - Encourage the use of formative assessment techniques including free exchange of feedback</p> <p>Leaning curveThe learning curve can represent a short training session to enable person to achieve a modest increase in performance or it can represent a long period for professional development. In all except the most simple learning situations ,it is useful to consider design through several building blocks or learning units, each providing opportunities for progressive learning towards a satisfactory standard performance.</p> <p>An illustration shows two learning units, training course and on the job training. A course has been designed to meet the general needs of people. The course can be run at a training institution over a fixed period. A course is unlikely to help people achieve a high standard of performance. Due to limited skills there is risk that the performance will deteriorate thereby negating the value of the training. So, instead of the learning curve continuing to rise to show an increasing standard of performance, it might falls as trainees forget of information &amp; lose their skills.</p> <p>Figure shows that a second learning unit is designed to ensure that a trainees performance can be maintained or improved. That this is by means of on the job training. This will done under the supervision to ensure effective of learning. The learning curve continues beyond the unit designed for on the job training. This is because many tasks are highly productive &amp; a person will probably continue to learn &amp; gain more experience long after their formal training is completed.</p> <p>Adult learning principles1 learning can be described as a relatively permanentchange in behaviour resulting from instruction or stimulation from external sources. Learning takes place as a result of perception which is the ability to observe the outside world through the senses. We perceive when we -recognize objects,sounds,etc., -discriminate b/w facts, right &amp; wrong, success &amp; failures -relate similar objects with one another, parts to the whole etc., -select what is of interest to us</p> <p>2 designing and implementing the training programme: it is worthwhile to examine the basic principles of learning &amp; see how these principles could be out into practice while designing the course. For better understanding of the principles of learning we shall enumerate them under the following heads: -the learning process -the training process -requirements on the part of trainer -the environment of learning &amp; training -the environment of the work org.</p> <p>3 learning processthe training should meet the training needs of the learner. He should be convinced that after training he will be in position to apply the lessons learn to his practical work situations. Then alone he will be motivated to make the best use of the programme.</p> <p>4 The training process The learning must be sequential. Appropriate training material must be prepared &amp; arranged in proper sequence &amp; order. Presentation &amp; demonstrations help in this process. Repetition fixes what has been learnt. Time must be provided for practicing the learning. Variety of training methods must be used to suit the materia...</p>