Aboriginal Peoples of CanadaCGC 1D/P1
Aboriginal Peoples of CanadaFirst Nations -groups of Canadian aboriginal people who have distinct cultures, history and heritages.
Inuit - indigenous people of Canadas Arctic regions
Mtis decedents of the children of aboriginal and French Canadian/ English settlers
Aboriginal Communities in Canada
Average Age of the population reporting a North American Indian identity and non-Aboriginal population, Canada, provinces and territories, 2006ProvinceTotal populationNon-aboriginal identity populationInuitMtisNorth American IndianAboriginal identity population11) Median age is the point at which exactly half of the population is older and half is younger
Percentage of population reporting an Inuit identity who know Inuktitut and who use it regularly at home, by age groups, Canada, 2001
Contributions of Aboriginal Peoples to Canadas Early History Lead defenders of Canada during the War of 1812- Painting of death of Tecumseh, in Chatham-Kent, Ontario Chief Joseph Brant helped the British during the American War of IndependenceHurons showing Jacques Cartier the cedar cure for scurvy In Canadas early days, treaties signed between Aboriginal Peoples & the French/ English governments were done as equals.
Canadas Disrespectful Treatment of Aboriginal Peoples : ReservesDislocation of Native Peoples onto reserve lands When larger numbers of European immigrants arrived in Canada, the British government obtained land for these settlers by signing treaties with the First Nations. In exchange, First Nations were offered small tracks of land called reserves, as well as money or European goods.
Canadas Disrespectful Treatment of Aboriginal Peoples: Forced Assimilation Ban on Aboriginal Religious PracticesNative Residential Schools: children removed from families & community and put into schools where their native language and culture was banned.Between the late 18th century to early 20th century, Canadas Aboriginal peoples were forcibly pushed to assimilate into the European-Canadian society. http://vimeo.com/15089321
Canadas Disrespectful Treatment of Aboriginal Peoples: Forced Assimilation This forced assimilation has lead to generations of people dealing with social problems such as alcoholism, suicide and abuse. In 2008, the Canadian government apologized for its role in the residential school system. This lead to the creation of the Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission, which is still ongoing today.
Success of Aboriginal Peoples Influential Aboriginal People(ex. Honourable James K. Bartleman, lieutenant-governor of Ontario) Settlement of Treaties Aboriginal Education
Modern Conflicts with Canadas Native Peoples: Land claims & TreatiesTreaty settlements problems in British Columbia in the 1970s (much of BCs lands were never settled through treaties)Oka Standoff in 1990Caledonia Standoff 2006 - Today
History of Native TreatiesCGC 1/P1
What is a Treaty?Treaty: An agreement or arrangement made by negotiation. For example, a contract in writing between two or more political authorities or parties, formally signed by their representatives and duly recognized as binding.
Treaties Chiefs from the Six Nations Reserve reading Wampum belts in which treaty information is written down in graphics made out of beads. Numbered Treaty One with the First Nations of Manitoba Crowd assembled for treaty payment, Fort Rae, Northwest Territories
Copy of a treaty document map and signatures for Penetanguishene, ON
Problems Caused by TreatiesAboriginal peoples lost enormous amounts of land.Aboriginal peoples lost their right to govern themselves.Reserves often not large enough to maintain traditional ways of life, or too remote for economic trade & employment outside of the reserve.
Problems Caused by TreatiesProblems around rights to use natural resources for personal use or income (ex. Fish, timber, minerals and hydro).Little say about the use/extraction of natural resources that would affect their lands
Native road block protest over rights of natural resource use
Peace and Friendship Treaties
Upper Canada Treaties
Modern TreatiesIn the 1960s & 70s, when there was increasing interest in developing natural resources in northern Canada where treaties had not been signed, the Canadian government announce a change in policy for how treaties with Aboriginal groups would be made.Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, right, and Indian Affairs Minister Jean Chretien, second from right, meet with Nisga'a First Nation leader Frank Calder, centre, on Feb. 7, 1973. The Trudeau government introduced a new land claim policy after a Supreme Court decision ruled the Nisga'a had pre-existing title to their lands based on occupancy and use. (
Modern TreatiesThe new policy defined two types of claims:Comprehensive claims, concerning aboriginal peoples who had never signed a treaty, and Specific claims, aimed at redressing historical wrongs related to treaties or instances where the government had breached its lawful obligation to a native group.
Modern TreatiesModern treaties address such matters as:Ownership and use of lands, waters and natural resources, including the subsurface; Management of land, waters, and natural resources, including fish and wildlife; Environmental protection and assessment; Economic development; Employment; Parks and conservation areas; Self-government
The creation of Nunavut is an example of this modern day comprehensive treaty agreement
Modern Treaty Territories
James Bay Treaties