Aboriginal Peoples of Canada. Living Cultures, vibrant stories. Pre Conceptions and Protocols. As with any part of our multicultural society, we must respect the traditions and cultures of peoples within Canada. The exception has been towards Aboriginal Peoples - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Aboriginal Peoples of Canada
Aboriginal Peoples of CanadaLiving Cultures, vibrant stories
Pre Conceptions and ProtocolsAs with any part of our multicultural society, we must respect the traditions and cultures of peoples within Canada.
The exception has been towards Aboriginal Peoples
Systematic attempts by the Canadian government to eliminate Aboriginal Culture
Indian Act: Currently regulates aboriginal peoples in Canada, controls lands designated as reserves, and defines who is or is not aboriginal
Residential Schools: A sponsored program where children were forced to attend schools that attempted to assimilate Aboriginal peoples by removing them from their families, breaking the chain of tradition.
Pre-HistoryWhat does this really mean as a term?
Pre-historic implies before written history
History is more than written works; its stories and songs, its art and technology. Its everything embodied by a culture
Aboriginal peoples continue with their tradition of Oral History
Relationships with natureAboriginal peoples lived in regions where through ingenuity and hard work, there was an abundance of food.
When food is abundant, culture can thrive; technology develops to compensate for challenges in the environment
For many aboriginal peoples, technology remained at the pinnacle of Neolithic development, because there was no need to pursue more.
Inuit Family, 1917. Relationships with NatureWhat do you think leads people to create new technologies?
What causes people to settle in one place, or to be migratory?
Think on these two questions for a minute
Relationships to NatureRather than apart from nature, the paradigm of aboriginal cultures is to see people as part of nature, though sadly removed from the power to speak.
Why would this be difficult for peoples so linked to the land?
As one myth describes, Raven took with him the power for man to speak to animals, and hid it away.
The Power of StoriesAll learning, all teaching, all human interaction is based off of stories
Some studies show that over 2/3 of all conversation is gossip, and all of it is story in one form or another
Why do people gossip do you think?
Transference of social information; rules of culture and our role in the world
Aboriginal StoriesAnimals and humans are active participants in traditional stories;
Stories exist to teach and to entertain simultaneously
Active, living things; meanings and stories are transferred from one person to another, but each storyteller adds their own flavour
Aboriginal Peoples during the 1910s-20sImportant Terms:1) Royal Proclamation of 17632) Constitution Act, 18674) Indian Act5) Victoria Conference, 19116) Richard-Mcbride Commission, 1912-147) 1927 Indian Act Amendment
On May 11th, 2000, the Federal and Provincial Governments, together with the Nisgaa government, established the first treaty in BC since 1850
In 1973, Frank Calder, hereditary chief of the Nisgaa nation took the tribes land claim to the Supreme Court.
The Court Ruled that aboriginal title existed and must be recognized and compensated.The Nisgaa gave up for this agreement:
1) Claim beyond the 2,019 square kilometers of land agreed to2) Exception from Income and Sales Taxes
Nisgaa LiemsHow long was this treaty in negotiation?In 1888, government surveyors had appeared in Nisgaa territory near Gitlaxtaamiks. Whats that in your canoe? asked Simoogit Israel Sgatiin, pointing to survey equipment. The surveyors replied that they were going to give land to the Nisgaa. How could you give us land that is already ours? Chief Sgatiin aimed his gun at the belly of the lead surveyor, took away their instruments, and sent them packing downstream.Main Street
Commercial DriveGranville IslandThe Squamish, the Musquem, the Tsleil-Watuth
A Coal Harbour Longhouse (1886)
A Story. Of a bridgeBuilt in 1937, by James Taylor, and paid for by the Guinness Family to help bring people to the North Shore to sell housesBuilt in the depression, when there was no money.
To build the bridge, they took land from the Squamish Reservation
When the King and Queen were to drive by for the opening, the Chiefs were asked to show their support, so that they could be shown to be willing.The people agreed, wore their full regailia, hoping that their support would help show that they were good citizens, hoping they could speak regarding their claimsThe King and Queen drove by.. Without stopping..Royal Proclamation of 1763The American Colonies caused a lot of trouble for the English.Raided the Ohio Valley, taking land without permission, sought to occupy aboriginal land (Mostly Iroquois, Creek peoples)
Royal Proclamation recognized all land west of the Appalachians as belonging to Aboriginal peoples
Only the Crown could extinguish aboriginal claim (not individuals) and only through Treaties.
Canada inherits this recognition through British Case Law and the Constitution Act
Canadian Constitution Act, 1982Can we remember which documents define the Rights of Canadians and the Obligations of government?
The Constitution Act, 1982The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (First 34 Sections of Constitution)
Section 35 Recognizes all aboriginal rights, treaties and claims Aboriginal Peoples know their rights: Know how the Law works1874- Protest in New West by Sto:lo. 50 chiefs, hundreds of protesters.Sign of clear active engagement among aboriginal peoples with understanding of British Law.1887: Nisga and Tsimshian both most active early on in understanding of law. Met with Premier. Premier claims to have never heard of concept of treaties, demands proof of which law book you have read and tells them they are lucky for the reserves they have.
Joe Capilano and A Trip to the King (1906)
The Indian ActPassed in 1876, its goal was to define:Who was or was not considered aboriginalWhat obligations (if any) the government had to care for aboriginal peoplesWhere they could travel, work, acquire land (Reserve System)Governed how their reserves/governments were runBanned ceremonies and practices that bound aboriginal culture togetherPotlatch on the west coast, Sun Dance for Interior peoplesRequired children to attend Residential Schools.Goal: Kill the Indian, save the ChildReserve System: differences in perspectiveThe Government of Canada established the Reserve system for 2 purposes:1) To open land for settlement through restriction of aboriginal title2) To facilitate civilizing of aboriginals by encouraging them to assimilate in order to acquire land like any other good British Citizen
Aboriginal signatories to treaties understood:Agreements were for land sharing and their traditional practices respectedThe reserves were not permanent restrictions but rather recognized village sitesIn exchange, the Federal Government would support transition to farming and other modernization through providing materials and equipment1910s EventsIndian Act Amended: Allows for corporations and cities to expropriate portions of reserves without compensation
Reserve lands, already small, could be broken up or traded for poor land
Examples Include Park Royal Mall and Lions Gate Bridge (West Vancouver)
1910s EventsMarch 1911: Victoria ConferenceAboriginal Chiefs and clergymen to meet with Premier Richard McBride.
Bring forth power of law and precedent
Peter Kelly: Haida Nation Methodist Minister
Cofounder of Allied Indian Tribes
Richard Mcbride Campaign Tobacco Tin1910s Events1912-16 McKenna-McBride CommissionEstablished to meet with all bands and consult on land use needs and provide additional reserve land if deemed necessary. Many groups refusedResult: Some increased but useful land removed, usually where land values had gone up
1914 Order in Council: declares that FN will take all compensation provided with no argument
1927:Indian Act Amended3 Main Revisions of importance
1) Residential School is mandatory for all children-Somewhat voluntary before, though many groups will continue to resist
2) Path to Citizenship Proposed:-Aboriginal Peoples become citizens in 2 ways:A) Voluntarily giving up statusB) Gaining a University Degree (Considered civilized)
Trade: Why do we value things?What exactly do we determine to be the measure of a successful person?BC Industry in the late 1800sHighly dependant on Aboriginal labour
Aboriginal peoples worked in lumber mills, fish camps, and other industries
Every few months, the labour just walked away to go to a potlatch
Huge problem but its a matter of two different culturesPerfectly willing to give everything away..Potlatch CulturesCoast Salish, Haida, and other West Coast peoples practice a Potlatch
Sometimes a week long ritual, families gather from all around the region to share stories, songsPerform marriages, cement alliances
Potlatch CulturesStatus was determined by how much you gave away
People saved up the entire year to have enough goods to give away at a potlatch
1884: Potlatch banned under the Indian Act
Considered a wasteful, unproductive custom
WealthFirst Nations Cultures determined wealth as a measure of how much one could provide for the group.
Accumulation of supplies becomes of paramount importance
Also, cultural objects take on greater meaning (Art is produced when there is an excess of necessities)
An Interconnected Continent