A Discussion on the Origin of the Cosmic Radiation || Introductory Remarks

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<ul><li><p>Introductory RemarksAuthor(s): G. D. Rochester and A. W. WolfendaleSource: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical andPhysical Sciences, Vol. 277, No. 1270, A Discussion on the Origin of the Cosmic Radiation (Jan.23, 1975), p. 318Published by: The Royal SocietyStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/74484 .Accessed: 05/05/2014 17:50</p><p>Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms &amp; Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p><p> .JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.</p><p> .</p><p>The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to PhilosophicalTransactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences.</p><p>http://www.jstor.org </p><p>This content downloaded from on Mon, 5 May 2014 17:50:26 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions</p><p>http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=rslhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/74484?origin=JSTOR-pdfhttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p></li><li><p>318 CONTENTS </p><p>PAGE G. R. BURBIDGE, F.R.S. </p><p>The extra-galactic contribution to the primary cosmic-ray flux 481 </p><p>SIR BERNARD LOVELL, F.R.S. On the stellar origin of low energy cosmic rays 489 Discussion 500 </p><p>Introductory remarks </p><p>BY G. D. ROCHESTER, F.R.S. AND A. W. WOLFENDALE Department of Physics, University of Durham </p><p>The intriguing problem of the identification of the source of the cosmic radiation has presented a challenge since its discovery some 60 years ago. Measurement of the energy and isotropy of the radiation showed conclusively that one obvious source, the Sun, was not the main source. Even in 1938 it was clear from the discovery of extensive air showers that the cosmic-ray spec- trum extended to at least 1016 eV and continuously running monitors indicated that the depar- ture from isotropy was no greater than the statistical uncertainty of the measurements (i.e. about 1 %). </p><p>Recent results have raised the maximum observed primary particle energy to higher than 1020 eV and the departure from isotropy for particulate radiation, to less than 0.01 % at 5 x 1011 eV and 1 % at 1017 eV. To these striking facts must now be added the great wealth of detailed knowledge which has come from the immense advances in technology in the past 30 years. On the cosmic-ray side these advances range from the flying of detectors and sophis- ticated equipment on great balloons near the top of the atmosphere to the imaginative flights of spacecraft far out into the Solar System, well away from the confusing effects of the Earth's atmosphere and the magnetosphere. Such experiments have given the relative abundances and the energy spectra of a variety of atomic nuclei and of electrons and positrons, and the intensity, energy and spatial distribution of X-rays and y-rays. </p><p>On the astronomical side results of great significance have come from new astronomical techniques, especially from the science of radioastronomy which has led to the identification of new astronomical objects of key importance for cosmic rays and the identification of what are probably the major accelerating mechanisms. </p><p>In view of these great advances it seemed to the organizers that the present time might be opportune to review the present state of knowledge in this field and attempt a synthesis. The present volume, in which are presented the invited talks and some of the lively discussion which ensued, is the result. Professor Ginzburg was unfortunately not able to present his paper in person but he kindly sent his MS; this was edited and presented by Dr Osborne. To the invited papers we have added an interesting paper from Sir Bernard Lovell, F.R.S. in part stimulated by this discussion meeting. </p><p>We are grateful to the Royal Society and its Officers for making this meeting possible and for the excellent support in its organization. </p><p>Finally may we express the hope that the papers presented here will not only indicate the progress that has been made in studying the problem of the origin of the cosmic radiation but also stimulate interest in the many problems which remain. </p><p>This content downloaded from on Mon, 5 May 2014 17:50:26 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions</p><p>http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p><p>Article Contentsp.318</p><p>Issue Table of ContentsPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Vol. 277, No. 1270, A Discussion on the Origin of the Cosmic Radiation (Jan. 23, 1975), pp. 317-501Front Matter [pp.317-318]Introductory Remarks [p.318]Cosmic-Ray Nuclei up to 10 eV/u in the Galaxy [and Discussion] [pp.319-348]Composition and Spectra of Primary Cosmic-Ray Electrons and Nuclei above 10 eV [and Discussion] [pp.349-363]Primary -Rays [and Discussion] [pp.365-379]The Search for Cosmic-Ray Anisotropies [and Discussion] [pp.381-393]Long-Term Variations in the Cosmic-Ray Flux [and Discussion] [pp.395-411]Survey of Data on Primary Cosmic-Ray Nuclei above 10 eV [pp.413-428]Explanations of the Spectral Shape in the Energy Range 10-10 eV [and Discussion [pp.429-442]Contribution from Pulsars [and Discussion] [pp.443-451]Pulsars and the Origin of Cosmic Rays [and Discussion] [pp.453-461]On the Origin of Cosmic Rays [pp.463-479]The Extra-Galactic Contribution to the Primary Cosmic-Ray Flux [pp.481-487]On the Stellar Origin of Low Energy Cosmic Rays [and Discussion] [pp.489-501]Back Matter</p></li></ul>


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