5 stages: Prewriting Drafting Revising Editing Publishing

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  • 5 stages:PrewritingDraftingRevisingEditingPublishing

  • Four Types of writingNarrativeInformationalPersuasive Response to Literature*At least one sample from each should be collected/scored3 performance levels:Does not meet, Meets, and Exceeds

  • Letter to the teacher persuading her to allow a popcorn party on Friday

  • In the prewriting stage the writer chooses a topic, considers the purpose, the audience, the form, and then creates a graphic organizer.

    Tompkins, G.E. (2008). Teaching children to write. Teaching a writing balancing process and product. Upper Saddle, NJ: Pearson.

  • Whole class/large group instruction:Instructional time, modeling, and practice activities for each stage of the writing process (effective use of time, zone of proximal development, scaffolding, building schema)

    Independent instruction:During assessment activities for each stage of the writing process (ownership, individuality)

  • Developmental: pairing with a partner, depending on severity, the student may still need one-on-one assistanceCultural: groups are sensitive to the fact that some may know more about the Underground railroad, these students are dispersed and encouraged to share what they knowLinguistic: peer helper, the 3 rule, one-on-one restating

  • Persuasive WritingAugmentative- also known asPoint- how you feel about the topic (support or do not support)Reasoning- why you feel this way about the topicAudience- who you are writing to and trying to convince (persuade) them to feel the way you do about the topic

  • Topic: Choose a topic that you know a lot about, brainstorm to elaboratePurpose: Decide why you are writing the text (to persuade/convince)Audience: Who you are writing to, who will read your text (appropriate language)Form: The type of text you write (letter, journal, report) Graphic Organizer: Put your thoughts down on paper to arrange your thoughts

  • Name ____________________ My letter is to:______________I think that Harriet Tubman was an important person because: 1.________________________________________ ________________________________________

  • 2.________________________________________ ________________________________________ 3.________________________________________ ________________________________________4. ________________________________________ ______________________________________

    Megow, C. (2008). Persuasive Letter Organizer. Unpublished Manuscript. Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA.

  • Practice Activity

  • Students fill in their persuasive letter organizersTrying to persuade the teacher that Harriet Tubman was an important personChecklist is provided to help

  • Prewriting Persuasive Letter ChecklistName____________________Date______________ Did you Remember: 1. The audience? 2. The right form? (Letter)3. To stay on topic? (Harriet Tubman)

  • 4. To persuade your audience?

    5. To state your opinion?

    6. To give the reasons you felt this way?

    Megow, C. (2008). Prewriting persuasive letter checklist. Unpublished Manuscript. Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA.

  • Meets Standards 2Needs Improvement 1Does not meet Standard 0Stated OpinionStudent stated what their opinion was on the topicStudent did not state their opinion on the topicCompletionStudent wrote at least 3 supportive reasons Student wrote 1-2 supportive reasonsStudent wrote no supportive reasons

  • Megow, C. (2008). Prewriting persuasive letter rubric. Unpublished manuscript. Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA

    Meets Standards 2Needs Improvement 1Does not meet Standard 0Wrote to the audienceStudent wrote the letter to the correct person and kept him/her in mindStudent wrote to correct person, but did not use appropriate language for that personStudent did not write to correct person and did not keep them in mindPersuasiveStudent wrote to persuade the audienceStudent partially wrote to persuade the audienceStudent did not write to persuade the audience

  • Developmental Needs:More timePeer helpersOne-on-one (teacher)Task analysis Additional practice before assessment

  • Cultural Needs:Notebook for difficult wordsOne-on-one teacher assistanceLinguistic Needs:ESOL student-assistive technology (translator)Peer helper3 rule

  • In the Drafting stage the writer begins a rough draft by using the information gathered in the prewriting stage.

    Tompkins, G.E. (2004). Teaching writing: Balancing process and product. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

  • Use information from organizersAdd more detailsWrite on every other lineNot final draftDont worry about.Spelling errorsHandwriting

  • Use information from organizersFirst draft of persuasive letter to the teacherWhy Harriet Tubman was an important person At least 3 reasons

  • Did you Remember: 1. The audience? (Mrs. Megow)2. To write the correct date? 3. To use all the information from the graphic organizer? 4. To stay on topic? (Harriet Tubman)5. To skip every other line?

  • Megow, C. (2008). Persuasive letter checklist. Unpublished manuscript. Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA

    Did You Remember Cont.6. To persuade your audience? 7. To state your opinion? 8. To give the reasons you felt this way? 9. Write your name at the bottom?

  • Meets Standards 2Needs Improvement 1Does not Meet Standard 0Stated opinionStudent stated what their opinion was on the topicStudent did not state their opinion on the topicCompletionStudent wrote at least 3 supportive reasons Student wrote 1-2 supportive reasons Student wrote no supportive reasonsWrote to the audienceStudent wrote the letter to the correct person and kept him/her in mindStudent wrote to correct person, but did not use appropriate language for that personStudent did not write to correct person and did not keep them in mind

  • Megow, C. (2008). Prewriting persuasive letter rubric. Unpublished manuscript. Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA

    Meets Standards 2Needs Improvement 1Does not Meet Standard 0PersuasiveStudent wrote to persuade the audienceStudent partially wrote to persuade the audienceStudent did not write to persuade the audienceLinesSkipped every other lineSkipped and then stoppedDid not skip every other lineSign NameYesNo

  • During this stage, the writer rereads the rough draft, shares the rough draft in a writing group, and revises on the basis of feedback received from the writing group (Tompkins, 2004, p. 18).

    Tompkins, G.E. (2004). Teaching writing: Balancing process and product. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

  • Read through your drafts to:Rearrange, change, add, or delete text/ideasImprove your thoughts/orderDo not worry about grammarOr spelling mistakes YET!

  • Independently revise own draftsEncouraged to Change, delete, rearrange, and improveReminded not to focus on spelling and grammar at this timePeer Revising

  • Did you remember to:Read through your draftRearrange wording to make better senseAdd ideas or details that needed to be addedDelete ideas or details that needed to be deleted

  • Megow, C. (2008). Revising persuasive checklist. Unpublished manuscript. Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA

    Did you remember to (cont.)Consider the changes from peer revisionMake appropriate changes from peer revision

  • Elements Exceeds Criteria3Meets Criteria2Partially Meets Criteria1Does not meet Criteria0Rearranged Wording to make better senseRearranged all ideas/details that needed to be rearranged throughout draftRearranged most ideas/details that needed to be rearranged Somewhat or incorrectly rearranged ideas/detailsNo ideas or details were rearranged Added ideas or details Correctly added in all ideas and details where neededAdded in ideas and details where appropriate; more can be added Added 1-2 ideas or details; more are neededNo ideas or details were added

  • Megow, C. (2008). Revising rubric. Unpublished manuscript. Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA

    Elements Exceeds Criteria3Meets Criteria2Partially Meets Criteria1Does not meet Criteria0Deleted ideas or detailsDeleted all ideas/details that were irrelevant or not needed Deleted most ideas/details that were irrelevant or not neededSomewhat or incorrectly deleted ideas/details; deleted important informationNo ideas or details were deleted Changed ideas or detailsChanged all ideas/details that needed to be changed throughout draftChanged most ideas/details that needed to be changed Somewhat or incorrectly changed ideas/details No ideas/details were changed

  • During this stage, the writer sets the composition aside for a while, proofreads to locate errors, and corrects errors (Tompkins, 2004, p. 22).

    Tompkins, G.E. (2004). Teaching writing: Balancing process and product. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

  • Grammatical ErrorsCorrect SpellingCorrect PunctuationCorrect CapitalizationProofreaders marks

  • Assessed on individually editing his/her persuasive letter to the teacher using proofreaders marks and making appropriate corrections.

  • Did I remember to:Correct all misspelled words?Capitalize first letters in first word of each sentence?Capitalize first letter in all proper nouns? Put a period in all telling sentences?Put a question mark in all asking sentences?

  • Megow, C. (2008). Editing checklist. Unpublished manuscript. Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA