Persuasive Writing Planning, Drafting, Composing, Editing, Revising, Finalizing, Presenting.

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  • Slide 1
  • Persuasive Writing Planning, Drafting, Composing, Editing, Revising, Finalizing, Presenting
  • Slide 2
  • Selecting Topics for Persuasive Speech Find an Arguable Topic: Not all topics are suitable for argument Not all topics are suitable for argument Brainstorm possible topics Brainstorm possible topics Two kinds of argument Two kinds of argument Position & Proposal
  • Slide 3
  • Selecting Topics for Persuasive Speech Position: Define the issue Define the issue Take a clear position Take a clear position Make a convincing argument Make a convincing argument Acknowledge opposing views Acknowledge opposing views
  • Slide 4
  • Selecting Topics for Persuasive Speech Proposal: Define the problem Define the problem Propose a solution or solutions Propose a solution or solutions Explain why the solution will work and is feasible Explain why the solution will work and is feasible
  • Slide 5
  • Selecting Topics for Persuasive Speech Topics not easily argued and to avoid: Statements of fact Statements of fact Personal taste Personal taste Claims of belief or faith Claims of belief or faith
  • Slide 6
  • Make an arguable claim Slogan short with no arguable claim Slogan short with no arguable claim Vote for candidate X Arguable claim includes a reason, typically linked to the slogan by because Arguable claim includes a reason, typically linked to the slogan by because Vote for candidate X because she will lower taxes and improve schools.
  • Slide 7
  • Possible Topics: Adoption Public smoking Graduation requirements Neutrality vs. involvement Homelessness/ poverty Community service as criteria for graduation Racial profiling Pollution/ environmental concerns Sweat shops Over population Olympics in Houston Students rights Immigration Animal testing Public shaming School security Banned books Political issues Underpaid civil workers (police, firemen, etc.) Community service v. jail time Hate crimes Assisted suicide Genetic engineering/cloning Stem Cell research Drug testing in sports, work place, etc. School vouchers Parental advisories video games, movies, TV Gun control Animal Cruelty Censorship Violence in films, video games, TV College admissions Automatic admissions for top 10% Nuclear weapons bans Capitol punishment Prayer in school Punishment v. abuse Aliens: fact or fiction International Space Station, NASA SAT issues TO DO: Select a topic and create an arguable claim statement
  • Slide 8
  • Make an arguable claim: Support claims with reasons: Buy Americanbecauseits our future CLAIM Link (because) REASON TO DO: Create a claims statement pertaining to your topic.
  • Slide 9
  • Make an arguable claim: Strengthen claims and reasons by confronting the readers possible challenges: Buy Americanbecauseits our future CLAIM Link (because) REASON CHALLENGES EVIDENCE (How? So what? Why?) (The future strength of America relies on a stable economy; buying American will improve the economy; and so on) TO DO: List multiple possible reasons which support your claim.
  • Slide 10
  • Claims must be specific and contestable: Specific: Avoid broad generalities Avoid broad generalities Specificity restricts your claim and makes it manageable Specificity restricts your claim and makes it manageableContestable: Must have more than one side to the argument Must have more than one side to the argument Sides must be addressed and rebutted Sides must be addressed and rebutted Sides must be reasonable Sides must be reasonable
  • Slide 11
  • Develop and Organize Good Reasons Think of reasons to support your claim. Think of how to relay the support to your audience. Think about your audience: 1. Who am I writing for? 2. What does my audience already know about the topic? 3. What is my audiences point of view about the subject? 4. Does my audience already agree or disagree with my position? 5. What are the chances of changing the opinions and behavior of my audience? 6. Are there any sensitive issues I should be aware of? 7. If my audience disagrees with me, why do they disagree? Possible lines of argument: 1. Can you argue by definition from the nature of the thing? 2. Can you argue from value? 3. Can you compare or contrast? 4. Can you argue from consequence? 5. Can you counter objections to your position?
  • Slide 12
  • Think about your organization: I.Introduction: Captures the readers attention, defines the issue or problem, and expresses the writers thesis or indicates the writers stance. II.Body: Supports the writers thesis in paragraphs that present reasons, facts, examples, and expert opinions. Opposing views are raised and discussed. III.Conclusion: Presents summary or strong conclusive evidence logically drawn from the arguments that underscores the writers thesis.
  • Slide 13
  • Persuasive Outline 5 paragraphs 750 1000 words I. Introduction a. clarifies topic b. captures audiences attention c. states emphatically your position Arguable Claim. II. Body paragraphs [8.2] (3 reasons 1 paragraph per reason) a. state reason b. one example of reason c. explanation of examples relations to reason (2 sentences) d. second example of reason e. explanation of examples relations to reason (2 sentences) f. transition sentence to next reason/conclusion III. Conclusion a. must not simply restate other paragraphs b. reminds reader of important reasons and examples c. asks reader to act upon the topic to solve this problem
  • Slide 14
  • Consider Opposing Views: Use facts and examples rather than opinions to support your argument. Use facts and examples rather than opinions to support your argument. Refer to respected authorities on your topic. Refer to respected authorities on your topic. If the opposition has a good point, admit it. Then show why the point is still not enough to sway your opinion. This is called conceding a point, and it will strengthen your credibility. If the opposition has a good point, admit it. Then show why the point is still not enough to sway your opinion. This is called conceding a point, and it will strengthen your credibility. Use polite and reasonable language rather than biased or emotionally charged words. Use polite and reasonable language rather than biased or emotionally charged words.
  • Slide 15
  • Grammar Lesson Define and know the following grammatical terms: noun noun concrete noun concrete noun abstract noun abstract noun verb verb passive verb passive verb active verb active verb adjective adjective adverbs adverbs jargon jargon
  • Slide 16
  • Lexicon lexicon \LEK-suh-kon\, noun; plural lexicons or lexica \-kuh\: 1. A book containing an alphabetical arrangement of the words in a language with the definition of each; a dictionary. 2. The vocabulary of a person, group, subject, or language. 3. [Linguistics] The total morphemes of a language. lexicon \LEK-suh-kon\, noun; plural lexicons or lexica \-kuh\: 1. A book containing an alphabetical arrangement of the words in a language with the definition of each; a dictionary. 2. The vocabulary of a person, group, subject, or language. 3. [Linguistics] The total morphemes of a language. The word choices speakers and writers make can tell us much about their world views and attitudes toward political situations. Analysis based on lexicon is most profitably undertaken with a computer. One may use special programs for word analysis, such as Diction 5.0 (Sage Publications Software), or text editing programs that report extensive data about text files. The old-fashioned way works well, too. The word choices speakers and writers make can tell us much about their world views and attitudes toward political situations. Analysis based on lexicon is most profitably undertaken with a computer. One may use special programs for word analysis, such as Diction 5.0 (Sage Publications Software), or text editing programs that report extensive data about text files. The old-fashioned way works well, too.
  • Slide 17
  • Lexicon Here are things to look for: 1.Nouns: Nouns tell us what interests a speaker. Are they concrete or abstract? Do they identify things or feelings? In what proportion do they balance the concrete and the abstract? Do they specifically define their abstract nouns or do they rely on the audience to supply a culturally accepted definition? 2.Verbs: Verbs tell us what actions interest a speaker. Does the speaker use active verb forms so that the agent of the action is clear. Or does the writer hide the agent in passive constructions. Does the writer use metaphoric verbs? 3.Adjectives: Words that writers use to modify nouns often reveal bias, such as the term "arch" used to modify "conservative." Adjectives also tell us much about the emotional involvement of the speaker. For example, there is a big difference between the "homeless" and the "forgotten homeless." 4.Adverbs: Adverbs tell us much about what a speaker intends to do and how they intend to do it. Compare these statements: "We must save Social Security" and "We must move quickly to save Social Security."
  • Slide 18
  • Lexicon More to Look for: 4. Ultimate or "god" terms: These are words that have a special force within a culture, i.e. "freedom" or "liberty." Communications scholar Roderick Hart1 claims that "much public oratory is little more than a clever interspersing of such words at appropriate times, which often turns genuine communication into mere word-saying." 5. Code words or jargon: These are words meant to communicate special messages to a subgroup or limited members of a broader audience. Code words are meant to exclude some people from the communication. Code words may often be euphemisms, such as "collateral damage" for the killing of innocent civilians in a war zone.
  • Slide 19
  • Rogerian Argument Instead of refuting opposing arguments, you negotiate to determine points of agreement. The result is that you collaborate to find solutions that are mutually satisfying. Instead of refuting opposing arguments, you negotiate to determine points of agreement. The result is that you collaborate to find solutions that are mutually satisfying. Guidelines for using Rogerian Argument Begin by summarizing opposing viewpoints. Begin by summarizing opposing viewpoints. Carefully consider the position of those who disagree with you. What are their legitimate concerns? If you were in their place, how would you react? Carefully consider the position of those who disagree with you. What are their legitimate concerns? If you were in their place, how would you react? Present opposing points of view accurately and fairly. Demonstrate your respect for the ideas of those who disagree with you. Present opposing points of view accurately and fairly. Demonstrate your respect for the ideas of those who disagree with you. Concede the strength of a compelling opposing argument. Concede the strength of a compelling opposing argument. Think of the concerns that you and your opposition share. Think of the concerns that you and your opposition share. Demonstrate to readers how they will benefit from the position you are defining. Demonstrate to readers how they will benefit from the position you are defining.
  • Slide 20
  • Typing Etiquette Times New Roman 12 pt font 1 margins Double spaced Times New Roman 12 pt font 1 margins Double spaced Indent every paragraph TAB once Indent every paragraph TAB once No spaces before periods, commas, etc. No spaces before periods, commas, etc. One space after periods, commas, etc. One space after periods, commas, etc. No cover sheet No cover sheet Header (on every page) Last name & Page # Header (on every page) Last name & Page # Heading (only on first page) Name, My Name, Course & Period, Date Heading (only on first page) Name, My Name, Course & Period, Date Title come up with unique title and center on next line after heading, but DO NOT change font, etc. Title come up with unique title and center on next line after heading, but DO NOT change font, etc.
  • Slide 21
  • Essay Etiquette NO contractions write out all words NO contractions write out all words Avoid vague pronoun references or pronoun shifts Avoid vague pronoun references or pronoun shifts Bad example: This clearly shows Good example: This example clearly shows Spell out all numbers less than 100 Spell out all numbers less than 100 Example: thirty-five Check homonyms or easily mixed up words: Check homonyms or easily mixed up words: there/their/theyrewhere/were got/haveto/too/two for/four/fore Words to eliminate: (Especially if used a lot and at the start of a sentence) Words to eliminate: (Especially if used a lot and at the start of a sentence) a lotwellvery likemuchso
  • Slide 22
  • Label one copy of your final draft Create a key which clearly identifies each of the following: Label your arguable claim or thesis statement. Label your arguable claim or thesis statement. Label your reasons (3) in the body of the essay Label your reasons (3) in the body of the essay Label your examples for each reason (2 per reason) Label your examples for each reason (2 per reason) Label your oppositions stance and your refutation. Label your oppositions stance and your refutation. Highlight, underline, mark, color code, whatever, so that it is clear whats what.
  • Slide 23
  • Grading Rubric Product Final Draft Major Grade Expectations I. Introduction (10 points) A. Arguable Claim/Thesis Statement B. Introduces & Explains Topic II. Reason #1 (20 points) A. Clearly identifies reason B. 2 supporting examples C. Clarifies relation to thesis III. Reason #2 (20 points) A. Clearly identifies reason B. 2 supporting examples C. Clarifies relation to thesis IV. Reason #3 (20 points) A. Clearly identifies reason B. 2 supporting examples C. Clarifies relation to thesis [At least one paragraph must deal with the opposition.] V. Conclusion (10 points) A. Reinforces thesis B. Reminds reader of important reasons and examples C. Asks reader to act upon the topic to solve this problem VI. Mechanics [Grammar, spelling, punctuation, etc.](20 points) Total Points - 100
  • Slide 24
  • Grading Rubric Process Double Daily Grade Final draft formatted correctly Final draft formatted correctly Rough draft Rough drafttyped Lexicon Labels nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, jargon, ultimate words Sentence marks arguable claim/thesis, reasons, examples, opposition Notes & Arguable claim statement Notes & Arguable claim statement Any other stuff from this assignment (optional) Any other stuff from this assignment (optional) 25 points 10 points 25 points 20 points 10 points Total 100
  • Slide 25
  • Persuasive Essay Reading For each essay read to the class...

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