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3GPP 5G System and Key 5G technologies Dr. Dionysis Xenakis National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Department of Digital Industry Systems and Data Network Management (BSc) [email protected]

3GPP 5G System and Key 5G technologies

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Text of 3GPP 5G System and Key 5G technologies

Προηγμνα Δκτυα Επικοινωνιν 2020-2021 (Μ130)Department of Digital Industry
[email protected]
level) and 5G spectrum 5G stakeholders, Service-based architecture (SBA), 5G spectrum
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 2
5G system (5GS) enabling technologies
5G networks have been targeted to meet the requirements of a highly mobile and fully connected society
The coexistence of human-centric and machine type applications will define very diverse functional and performance requirements that 5G networks will have to support
5G System (5GS) fundamental pillars to support the heterogeneous key performance indicators (KPIs) of the new use cases in a cost-efficient way
Service-based architecture
5G New Radio (NR) technologies
The 5GS gives mobile network operators the unique opportunities to offer new services to consumers, enterprises, verticals, and third-party tenants
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 3
Key 5G stakeholders (3GPP)
Virtualization, standard interfaces and protocols, open APIs shall enable
manufacturers, solution integrators, network and service providers, and Small
and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) to efficiently compete and cooperate,
SMEs shall provide technological solutions which will be compatible with the
overall system
e.g., new hardware components in the infrastructure, or software components in
the Management and Organization layers
Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) and infrastructure providers shall create
tailored slices with specific functionalities as well as Over-The-Top (OTT)
applications and services to address requirements of vertical industries
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 4
Key 5G stakeholders (3GPP)
Service Customer (SC)
Uses services that are offered by a Service Provider (SP). In the context of 5G, vertical industries are considered as one of the major SCs.
Service Provider (SP)
Comprises three sub-roles, depending on the service offered to the SC
Communication Service Provider offering traditional telecom services,
Digital Service Provider offering digital services such as enhanced mobile broadband and IoT to various vertical industries
Network Slice as a Service (NSaaS) Provider offering a network slice along with the services that it may support and configure. SPs design, build and operate services using aggregated network services
Network Operator (NOP)
Uses aggregated virtualized infrastructure services to design, build, and operate network services that are offered to SPs
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 5
Key 5G stakeholders (3GPP)
Provides virtualized infrastructure services and designs, builds, and operates virtualization infrastructure(s)
The infrastructure comprises networking (e.g., for mobile transport) and computing resources (e.g., from computing platforms)
Data Centre Service Provider (DCSP)
Provides data center services and designs, builds and operates its data centres.
VISP vs DSCP
DSCP offers “raw” resources (i.e., host servers) in rather centralized locations and simple services for consumption of these raw resources
A VISP offers access to a variety of resources by aggregating multiple technology domains and making them accessible through a single API
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 6
Key 5G stakeholders (3GPP)
3GPP 5G general requirements and
concepts
Separate the User Plane (UP) functions from the Control Plane (CP) functions
Allowing independent scalability, evolution and flexible deployments e.g. centralized location or distributed (remote) location.
Modularize the function design
e.g. to enable flexible and efficient network slicing
Define procedures (i.e. the set of interactions between network functions) as services, so that their re-use is possible
Enable each Network Function to interact with other NF directly if required
The architecture does not preclude the use of an intermediate function to help route Control Plane messages (e.g. like a DRA).
Minimize dependencies between the Access Network (AN) and the Core Network (CN)
The architecture is defined with a converged core network with a common AN - CN interface which integrates different Access Types e.g. 3GPP access and non-3GPP access.
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 8
5GS high-level Architecture by 5GPPP [5]
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 9
Resources and Functional Level
Including both access and core network physical resources, backhaul resources and computing resources (cloud and edge)
Physical network resources combine physical resources belonging to different Radio Access Technologies (RATs)
Cloud / central cloud resources provide well-organized powerful resources in distributed data centers
Edge cloud resources include loosely coupled yet proximal resources to the end terminals, enabling MEC and fog computing
Different roles for edge vs cloud physical resources (towards reduced layer)
All physical resources are tied together using SDN-based high-data rate control, to become virtually separated and programmable using SDN principles
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 10
Network level
Decoupled from its physical resources and uses logical functions/separation to build resources for the Service layer
Responsible for creating network slices in response of requests from the Service layer
A network slice is an e2e network encompassing multiple logical networks and running on-top of the Resources and Functional Level
Similar to VLAN but integrates computing, storage and logical functions
Can be configured to meet service needs (broader concept than QoS – resource isolation and network within a network)
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 11
Service Level
Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 5/20/2021 12
E2E Service Operations – Lifecycle
Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR
In 5G, many things will be offered as a service, including infrastructure, a platform, or software
Network slicing shall satisfy the need for customised, service-specific combinations of service components and network functions in all of the network segments
Service lifecycle management (LCM) tools are enabled by Service Development Kits (SDKs)
Using SDKs, services can be reconfigured, or new service versions can be created
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Option 2: 5GS SA with 5GC connected
Option 3: 5G NSA LTE assisted with EPC connected
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 14
5G Architecture – Migration Options
Option 6: SA 5G radio connected to EPC
Option 7: NSA LTE assisted with 5GC connected
Option 8: NSA 5G NR assisted with EPC connected
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 15
5G Spectrum
Billions of devices shall require access to the 5G spectrum
ITU responsible for setting worldwide bands for wireless communications
Depending on availability of spectrum per country
M2M, IIoT, V2X and eMBB urge for the utilization of new bands
Three types of bands for 5G
Low Bands (<1GHz)
Limited spectrum (capacity) typically 800MHz, 900 MHz, 5G will have 600,700MHz (current analog TV broadcast)
Very good propagation characteristics (penetrates buildings)
Ideal for rural, suburban and through-building (deep indoor) network coverage
Currently used for mobile broadband and IoT by 3GPP
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 16
5G Spectrum
5G bands typically in 3.5GHz and 4GHz
Acceptable but not as good propagation characteristics as compared to lower bands
Good balance between latency, throughput and distance
eMBB, URLLC and some IoT applications exist
High bands (6GHz to 100GHz)
Subject to absorption by physical phenomena (oxygen, buildings, rain, etc.)
mmWave communications enable dense deployments of extremely high thoughput, low latency
Large pool of spectrum available (enable fiber-like capacity over wireless)
IoT applications and Fixed Wireless Access (FWA)
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 17
5G Spectrum
[6]
The engineering of a MW or mmW link involves finding the optimal combination of link length, capacity, frequency band and availability.
The physics of radio waves propagation determine the relation among capacity, availability and link length
Licensed and unlicensed spectrum operation considered by 3GPP
Dynamic Spectrum Sharing (DSS) technology
Enable the 5G system to share/co-utilize mid bands assigned to 3G/4G systems
Spectrum availability is scarce in such bands
Split spectrum between two different networks, dynamically changing based on per system load
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 18
5G Spectrum [6] – MW/mmWave bands
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 19
MW and mmW Transport Network
Topology [6]
The penetration of fiber to the edge of the network and the densification of sites
have two main effects:
Shortening of chains of cascaded radio links, approaching the limit of one radio link to
the fiber
Increase of the number of links originating from a hub site in a star-like topology
Tail links are used to connect just one terminal mobile site
Aggregation links carry the traffic of different terminal sites
Meshed topology
Radio links are the fastest and most efficient way to assure the secondary connection,
covering the requirements related to network slicing, per path and per service
Link protection with media differentiation over the shortest/fastest path between
adjacent sites
Topology evolution in the macro cell backhaul
network
Software Defined Networks and Network
Function Virtualization
Enablers for software-centric networking and service-
based architecture
implemented by dynamically deploying
programming their connectivity
and centers, either at the RAN, or the
CN
requirements
Network Operating System (NOS) level
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 23
SDN technology overview
Network control functions implemented through dedicated hardware that includes
specific integrated circuits and proprietary software
Some compatibility issues may be faced due to multiple vendors
Control logic is coupled to the data transferred
A group of devices cannot be easily re-programmed with one operation
SDN enables control/data plane separation
Software-based control and fully programmable devices
Network flows can be controlled dynamically using reprogramming
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 24
SDN technology overview
Devices are viewed as infrastructure nodes that deploy forwarding/processing,
handling only the data plane
A control layer is introduced to enable the implementation of a logically central
controlled that handles lobotomized infrastructure nodes
Application layer consists of business, network and other applications
A management layer may exist
Northbound interface: application layer to control layer
Southbound interface: control layer to data plane (infrastructure nodes)
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 25
SDN
architecture
Infrastructure layer only forwards packets
Control layer takes decisions on algorithms and policies for forwarding packets
Gives instructions in terms of rules to the infrastructure layer
Application layer interacts with controller to ask for resources and set requirements to the control layer
Specific protocols are used for NB/SB interfaces (APIs)
OpenFlow* protocol for SB API
5/20/2021Dr. Dionysis Xenakis - Systems and Data Network Management - NKUA DIND.UOA.GR 26
References
[2] EURO-5G, D2.6: Final report on programme progress and KPIs, https://5g-ppp.eu/wp- content/uploads/2016/02/BROCHURE_5PPP_BAT2_PL.pdf
[3] A. Dogra, R. K. Jha and S. Jain, "A Survey on beyond 5G network with the advent of 6G: Architecture and Emerging Technologies," in IEEE Access, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3031234.
[4] 5G PPP Architecture Working Group, “View on 5G Architecture”, Version 3.0, February 2020.
[5] ETSI TS 23 501, ”5G; System Architecture for the 5G System”, V15.2.0 (2018-06)
[6] ETSI White Paper No. 25, “Microwave and Millimetre-wave for 5G Transport“, First edition – February 2018. ISBN No. 979-10-92620-19-1
[7] ETSI GS NFV 002 (V1.2.1), “Network Functions Virtualization (NFV); Architectural Framework”, Dec 2014
[8] 5GPPP Architecture Working Group, “View on 5G Architecture”, Version 2.0, Dec. 2017
[9] https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/wireless/packet-core/data-sheet-c78-741416.html
[10] 3GPP TS 23.501 , “System architecture for the 5G System (5GS)”, V15.11.0, Rel.15, Sept 2020.
[11] https://5g.security/5g-technology/5g-core-sba-components-architecture/