2012 PowerPoint Template Version 2.1

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2012 PowerPoint Template Version 2.1

Common PQ Issues and Solutions

Mark Stephens, PE, CEM, CP EnMS Senior Project ManagerIndustrial PQ and Energy EfficiencyElectric Power Research Institute Phone 865.218.8022 mstephens@epri.com

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/20131

EPRI Semiconductor PQ Experience Semiconductor Plant PQ AuditsAlbany Nanotech, Albany, NYAsahi Kasei Microsystems, JapanAUO, Hsinchu, TaiwanChartered Semiconductor, SingaporeChiMei Optoelectronics Corp, Tainan, TaiwanConfidential Semiconductor Site, Chandler, AZConfidential Semiconductor Site, PhilippinesHP, SingaporeIBM, Burlington, VTIBM, East Fishkill, NYInternational Rectifier, TemeculaKyocera,Kagoshima,JapanLucent Technologies, Allen Town, PALSI Logic, ColoradoFreescale/Motorola, Ed Bluestien, Austin, TXFreescale/Motorola, Oak Hill , Austin, TXMotorola, Irvine, CA Motorola, Mesa, AZ Philips Semiconductor, San Antonio Qimonda, Sandston, VA Sony Semiconductor, San Antonio, TX SSMC, Singapore ST Microelectronics, San DiegoST Microelectronics, Singapore Winbond Semiconductor Plant, Hsinchu, Taiwan OEMs (SEMI F47 Testing)ABB RoboticsAccent OpticalAdvanced EnergyAlcatelRockwell AutomationApplied MaterialsASMASMLAxcelisCarrierCFM TechnologiesCTIDensei-LambdaDurr AutomationESIFanuc RoboticsFSI InternationalIbisJohnson ControlsJohnson Controls, York, PAKLA-TencorKuka RoboticsLambda EMIMattson TechnologiesMcQuay InternationalMeiden Power Solutions OEMs (SEMI F47 Testing)27. Mitsubishi28. Novellus29. Phoenix Contact30. Powertron31. PULS Power32. Reliability, Inc.33. Rudolph Technologies34. Schlumberger35 Schneider Electric35. SCP Global Technologies36. SEMATECH37. Semitool38. Siemens39. SVG Lithography40. SVG Thermco41 Tokyo Electron Austin (TEA)42. Tokyo Electron Kyushu (TKL)43. Tokyo Electron Massachusetts (TEM)44. Trane45. Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates, Inc.46. York

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/201322

Importance of Power QualityWhat happens to this Ion Implanter process when a power quality problem occurs?Who is to blame?How do we work together to fix the problems?

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/20133

Interrelated Processes

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Outage or Sag ?

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/20135

Typical Recloser Schemes

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/2013Targeting by Cause

One Phase68%Two Phases19%Three Phases13%Source: EPRI Distribution Power Quality Study

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/20137

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/2013

Is it the Plant Equipments Fault?5 Year Data Example Fed from Dedicated SubstationFrom TransmissionNetwork

4 Year Data Example Fed from Dedicated DistributionNetwork

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/20139

Important RealizationUtilities Share ResponsibilityTree Trimming, Lighting Arrestors, Grounding, Maintenance, Provide PQ information to industrials, etcUnderstand PQ Environment of Grid

Industrials Share ResponsibilityUnderstanding Equipment Vulnerability, PQ Specifications, Power Conditioning, Proper Wiring/Grounding, etcUnderstand PQ Environment at Site

Most effective solutions are reached when both sides work together to see what can be done

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/2013Protecting Processes Against Voltage Sags

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/201311

Protecting Equipment Against Voltage SagsInstalled Process EquipmentThe goal of improving installed process equipment is to improve the overall voltage sag tolerance of the machine Four common approaches have been proven to to be effective at protecting installed process equipmentFacility LevelPanel LevelEquipment/Machine LevelControl Level

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/201312

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Protecting Equipment Against Voltage SagsInstalled Process EquipmentEconomics Drive the Approach

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/201313

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Protecting Equipment Against Voltage SagsInstalled Process EquipmentFacility-level Solutions are targeted at protecting an entire facility and can be very costly ($500k - $$M+)

Dynamic Voltage RestorerLarge FlywheelLarge UPS

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/201314

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Protecting Equipment Against Voltage SagsInstalled Process EquipmentPanel-level Solutions are targeted at protecting loads fed from a common circuit (Panel or Branch) $100k - $500+

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/201315

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Protecting Equipment Against Voltage SagsInstalled Process EquipmentMachine-level Solutions are targeted at protecting one machine ($20k - $200k)

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/201316

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Protecting Equipment Against Voltage SagsInstalled Process EquipmentControl-level solutions are targeted at protecting only the most sensitive components, most cost effective solution ($100 - $5,000)

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/201317

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Generalized Example: Control Level to Equipment/Machine Level Cost vs. Coverage

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# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/201318

Embedding the Solution

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/2013Techniques to Improve Voltage Sag Tolerance of Process EquipmentNew Equipment in Design PhaseSpecify Compliance to PQ Standards (such as SEMI F47)Design with DC Power Use Sag-Tolerant Components Select Appropriate Trip Curves for Circuit Breakers Existing EquipmentProvide Conditioned Power for AC Control Circuits Provide Backup Power for DC Buses Either Existing or New EquipmentApply Custom Programming Techniques Drive Configuration Settings

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/201320

Specify Voltage Sag Standards in Purchase Specs ( such as SEMI F47)

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/2013Design with DC PowerUtilize SEMI F47 compliant DC Power Supplies.Whereas control power transformers (CPTs) and AC components do not have inherent energy storage to help them ride through voltage sags.

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/201322

Design with DC PowerOne of the best methods of increasing the tolerance of control circuits is to use direct current (DC) instead of alternating current (AC) to power control circuits, controllers, input/output devices (I/O), and sensors. DC power supplies have a built-in tolerance to voltage sags due to their ripple-correction capacitors, whereas control power transformers (CPTs) and AC components do not have inherent energy storage to help them ride through voltage sags Many OEMs are moving in this direction to harden their equipment designs

DC Powered Emergency Off Circuit

DC Powered PLC Circuit

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/201323

Use Sag-Tolerant ComponentsRequire that all electrical components and subsystems meet SEMI F47 or other recognized voltage-sag standards

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/201324

Ride-Through Adjustments on AC DrivesDepending on the setting of the drives undervoltage trip point and the severity of the sag, the drive may trip after the DC bus decreases below the undervoltage trip point.Sometimes, the voltage-sag tolerance of drives can be increased through parameter settings, including restart optionsExample AC Drive Parameters that could improve ride-through are;Automatic Reset and Restart Functions Motor- Load Control Functions (Flying Restart) Phase-Loss and DC Bus Undervoltage Functions Acceleration / Deceleration / Current / Torque - Limits

# 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.NYSDPS Power Quality Technical Conference 12/12/201325

Reported Approaches for Semiconductor Plant Voltage Sag Mitigation Strategies

Facility Wide Centralized UPS for critical loads in the fab. Distributed Approach - mitigate voltage sags on a tool-by-tool basis. Local UPS ranging from of 30