Text of 19.3: The War Winds Down Protest, protest, and more protest!
19.3: The War Winds DownProtest, protest, and more protest!
Nixon Moves to End the War
A. Henry Kissinger
National Security AdvisorLinkage policy improve relations w/SU and China so as to reduce aid to VietnamMain negotiator w/N.VietnamNobel Peace Prize winners 1973
Le Duc Tho
B. VietnamizationLetting the Vietnamese take a more active role by withdrawing US troopsBut, secretly bombs CambodiaSilent majority: mainstream Americans who quietly supported the presidents strategy
C. My Lai Massacre (11/69) Lt. Wm Calley
D. Invasion of Cambodia (4/70)Destroy supply centers and Ho Chi Minh trail without Congresss approvalSchool protests increase!Kent State 4 killedJackson State -2 killedGulf Tonkin Resolution repealed (70)War Powers Act (73)
4. War Powers Act- President must inform congress within 48 hours if US forces are sent into a hostile area without a declaration of warTroops may not stay longer than 90 days unless congress approves
E. Pentagon Papers (6/71)Continued to expand war w/o Congress consentPres. Johnson was not honest with AmericansGovt continues to lose credibility
F. Election of 1972George McGovern (Dem)
Landslide victoryw/60% of popular vote!Richard Nixon (R)
G. Christmas Bombings (72) 1. Dec. 1972: peace negotiations break down = Christmas bombings (11 days of bombing to resume peace talks stopping only on Christmas day)2. Jan. 27, 1973 = agreement reached; by March all soldiers gone
Fall of Siagon
By April 1975, Southern Vietnam falls to Northern forces.Congress does not approve help.
II. The Legacy of Vietnam
A. Human toll
>58,000 dead>300,000 injured15% (450,000) PTSD, suicides, addictsPOW/MIAno parades; hostiles$170 Billion on war
1982: Vietnam Veterans Memorial
****************************2. Continued Fighting in SE AsiaVietnamReeducation boat peopleCambodias Khmer Rougei. Communist group who opposed capitalismii. Wanted a peasant societyEnd up killing over 2 million Cambodians