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19.3: The War Winds Down Protest, protest, and more protest!

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  • 19.3: The War Winds DownProtest, protest, and more protest!

  • Nixon Moves to End the War

  • A. Henry Kissinger

    National Security AdvisorLinkage policy improve relations w/SU and China so as to reduce aid to VietnamMain negotiator w/N.VietnamNobel Peace Prize winners 1973

    Le Duc Tho

  • B. VietnamizationLetting the Vietnamese take a more active role by withdrawing US troopsBut, secretly bombs CambodiaSilent majority: mainstream Americans who quietly supported the presidents strategy

  • C. My Lai Massacre (11/69) Lt. Wm Calley

  • D. Invasion of Cambodia (4/70)Destroy supply centers and Ho Chi Minh trail without Congresss approvalSchool protests increase!Kent State 4 killedJackson State -2 killedGulf Tonkin Resolution repealed (70)War Powers Act (73)

  • 4. War Powers Act- President must inform congress within 48 hours if US forces are sent into a hostile area without a declaration of warTroops may not stay longer than 90 days unless congress approves

  • E. Pentagon Papers (6/71)Continued to expand war w/o Congress consentPres. Johnson was not honest with AmericansGovt continues to lose credibility

    Daniel Ellsberg

  • F. Election of 1972George McGovern (Dem)

    Landslide victoryw/60% of popular vote!Richard Nixon (R)

  • G. Christmas Bombings (72) 1. Dec. 1972: peace negotiations break down = Christmas bombings (11 days of bombing to resume peace talks stopping only on Christmas day)2. Jan. 27, 1973 = agreement reached; by March all soldiers gone

  • Fall of Siagon

    By April 1975, Southern Vietnam falls to Northern forces.Congress does not approve help.

  • II. The Legacy of Vietnam

  • A. Human toll

    >58,000 dead>300,000 injured15% (450,000) PTSD, suicides, addictsPOW/MIAno parades; hostiles$170 Billion on war

    1982: Vietnam Veterans Memorial

  • ****************************2. Continued Fighting in SE AsiaVietnamReeducation boat peopleCambodias Khmer Rougei. Communist group who opposed capitalismii. Wanted a peasant societyEnd up killing over 2 million Cambodians