1.3 Reacting Masses and Volumes Reacting Gases Kristin Page IB SL Chemistry

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1.3 Reacting Masses and Volumes Reacting Gases

1.3 Reacting Masses and VolumesReacting GasesKristin PageIB SL Chemistry

Understandings

Avogadros law enables the mole ratio of reacting gases to be determined from volumes of the gases.The molar volume of an ideal gas is a constant at specified temperature and pressure.The molar concentration of a solution is determined by the amount of solute and the volume of solution.A standard solution is one of known concentration.Application & Skills

Calculation of reacting volumes of gases using Avogadros law.Solution of problems and analysis of graphs involving the relationship between temperature, pressure and volume for a fixed mass of an ideal gas.Solution of problems relating to the ideal gas equation.Explanation of the deviation of real gases from ideal behavior at low temperature and high pressure.Obtaining and using experimental values to calculate the molar mass of a gas from the ideal gas equation.Solution of problems involving molar concentration, amount of solute and volume of solution.Use of the experimental method of titration to calculate the concentration of a solution by reference to a standard solution.Kinetic Theory of Gases

Gas particles have high energy are separated by a lot of space Gas particles are move rapidly in straight lines but random directionsGas particles collide with each other and with the container but do not lose energyThere is no attractive force between gas particlesThese hold true for ideal gases

Ideal Gases

Model of the behavior of real gasesUnder normal conditions known as standard temperature and pressure (STP)STP: P = 100 kPa and T = 273KUseful conversions: 100 kPa = 1atm and 273K = 0CGas particles have high energy are separated by a lot of space Gas particles are move rapidly in straight lines but random directionsGas particles collide with each other and with the container but do not lose energyThere is no attractive force between gas particles

Absolute Zero

When dealing with gases we need to use STP. This means that units of temperature must be in Kelvin (K)273K = 0CThe Kelvin scale starts at absolute zero (0K)It is not actually possible to reach absolute zero since this would be the point at which particles stopped all motion** Actually technically not true anymore but for our purposes we will stick with this. If you are curious go to http://www.nature.com/news/quantum-gas-goes-below-absolute-zero-1.12146

Avogadros Law

(m3)00This means that volumes can be used directly instead of moles in equations involving gases.Ex: H2(g) + Cl2(g) 2HCl(g) Demonstration: Balloons, as I add more gas particles, volume increases. When I let gas out, volume decreases7Avogadros Law Problems

Demonstration: Balloons, as I add more gas particles, volume increases. When I let gas out, volume decreases8Avogadros Law Problems

Demonstration: Balloons, as I add more gas particles, volume increases. When I let gas out, volume decreases9Molar Volume

Demonstration: Balloons, as I add more gas particles, volume increases. When I let gas out, volume decreases10Boyles Law

http://www.uccs.edu/vgcl/gas-laws/experiment-1-boyles-law.html

Pressure chamber (vacuum) inflate a marshmallow, balloon, bags of chips (decrease pressure increase volume)11Boyles Law Example

To make an air horn, 1.50 dm3 of air at 101 kPa are compressed into a can with a volume of 0.462 dm3. Assuming a constant temperature, what is the pressure on the compressed air?Pressure chamber (vacuum) inflate a marshmallow, balloon, bags of chips (decrease pressure increase volume)12Charless Law

http://www.uccs.edu/vgcl/gas-laws/experiment-2-charles-law.html

Balloon in boiling water bath, balloon in freezer13Charless Law Example

On hot days, you may have noticed that potato chip bags seem to inflate, even though they have not been opened. If I have a 250mL bag at a temperature of 19C, and I leave it in my car which has a temperature of 45C, what will the new volume of the bag be? Balloon in boiling water bath, balloon in freezer14Gay-Lussacs Law (1778-1850)

http://www.uccs.edu/vgcl/gas-laws/experiment-3-gay-lussacs-law.html

Demonstrations: Crushing Can, Egg in a Bottle Large Erlenmeyer flask, small amount of water, heat on hot plate. Balloon on top balloon inflates, put flask in ice water bath, balloon inflates inside the jar

15Combined Gas Law

Combined Gas Law Example

If the volume of an ideal gas collected at 0C and 100 kPa is 50.0cm3, what would be the volume at 60C and 108 kPa?Ideal Gas Equation

Ideal Gas Equation Practice

An ideal gas occupies 590 cm3 at 120C and 202 kPa. What amount of gas (in moles) is present? Ideal Gas Equation Practice

A gas has a density of 1.24 g dm-3 at 0C and 1.00 x 105 Pa. Calculate its molar mass.