1 Aviation Weather Services - about. ?· A trend forecast consists of an aviation weather report (METAR…

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    Authorised by: General Manager Aviation Sales (June 2016) Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited 2013

    AviationWeatherServices1. Introduction

    MetServiceiscertifiedtoAS/NZ9001:2008standardsandwearealsocertificatedbytheNewZealandCivilAviationAuthority(CAA)inaccordancewithCivilAviationRule,Part174toprovidethefollowingAviationWeatherServices: Aforecastservice Aninformationdisseminationservice Ameteorologicalbriefingservice Ameteorologicalreportingservice Ameteorologicalwatchservice2. DisclaimerMetServiceendeavourstoobtainandsupplythebestavailableinformationbutshallhavenoresponsibilityorliabilityforanyconsequentiallossoranydamagedirectlyorindirectlysufferedbytheuseroranythirdpartyasaresultoftheuseroranythirdpartyplacingrelianceoninformation,servicesoradvicesupplied.3. InterpretationanduseofforecastsHowever,usersofforecastsshouldnotethat,owingto: Thevariabilityoftheseelementsintimeandspace; Limitationscausedbythedefinitionsofsomeoftheelements;and Limitationsofcurrentforecastingtechniques,thespecificvalueofanyoftheelementsgiveninaforecastshallbethemostprobablevaluewhichtheelementislikelytohaveduringtheperiodoftheforecast.4. HeightReferencesTheheightsinforecasts,warningsandobservationsareexpressedasfollows:

    TypeofForecast HeightReferenceAerodromeforecasts(TAFs) 100soffeetaboveaerodromelevelAreaforecasts(ARFORS) FeetabovemeansealevelAerodromeweatherreports(METAR/SPECI) 100soffeetaboveaerodromelevel

    Warnings(SIGMETs) Feetabovemeansealevelupto10,000feetandflightlevelsatandaboveFL100Routeforecasts(ROFORs) FlightlevelsSignificantweather(SIGWX)charts FlightlevelsWindandtemperature(WINTEM)charts FlightlevelsFreezinglevel(FZL)charts FlightlevelsColourcloudtopsatellitepictures Flightlevels

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    Authorised by: General Manager Aviation Sales (June 2016) Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited 2013

    5. UseofCB(Cumulonimbus)inforecastsWhentheabbreviationCB(meaningcumulonimbuscloud)isusedinforecasts(textandgraphicalform)thisimplies that there may also be associated thunderstorms and the occurrence of severe icing, severeturbulenceandhail.6. TypesofproductsandservicesavailableThefollowingproductsandservicesareavailablefromtheWellingtonAviationWeatherCentre(WAWC),locatedinWellington,NewZealandAerodromeforecastsTheseareprovided intheTAF (TerminalAerodromeForecast)code.Allheights inTAFsare infeetabovetheaerodromelevel.AerodromereportsTheseareprovidedintheMETAR(MeteorologicalAerodromeReport)andSPECIcode.AllheightsinMETARandSPECIreportsareinfeetabovetheaerodromelevelAerodromeQNHforecastThis isa forecastof themaximumandminimumQNHvalue.This forecast isprovidedasaguide to therangeofpressureexpectedduringaspecifiedvalidityperiod.ThemainpurposeisasacheckontheactualQNHpassedtoanaircraft,toensurethatanyerrorsintransmissiondonotresultinanincorrectaltimetersetting.AerodromeQNHforecastsshouldnotbeusedasanaltimetersetting.AreaForecast(ARFOR)An ARFOR is a forecast for a specified area and is for planning domestic flights (VFR and IFR) up to10,000ft.Allheightsareinfeetabovemeansealevel(MSL).EDTOsTotalAirTemperature(TAT)chartsEDTOchartsprovideinformationintendedtoassistwithdeterminingthecontingencyfuelrequirementsforEDTOflights.Freezinglevel(FZL)chartsFreezinglevelchartsshowtheheightofthe0oisotherm(freezinglevel)overspecificareas.GRIB(GriddedBinary)dataGRIBiscomputerprocessedmeteorologicaldataforasetofregularlyspacedpoints.Foraviationpurposesthedatatypicallyincludesforecastsofwinds,temperatures,tropopauseheightsandhumidity.HighLevelSignificantWeather(SIGWX)forecastThisisaforecastfortheairspacebetweenFL250andFL630.Theforecastsareissuedinchartform.MediumLevelSIGWXforecastThisisaforecastfortheairspacebetweenFL100andFL250.Theforecastsareissuedinchartform.Routeforecast(ROFOR)Thisisaforecastofwindandtemperatureforaspecificrouteandlevels.SatellitepicturesTheseareobtainedfrombothgeostationaryandorbitingsatellitesandprovidevisibleandinfraredimagesofcloudtops.

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    Authorised by: General Manager Aviation Sales (June 2016) Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited 2013

    RadarimageryRadar images are obtained from one of the six RADAR stations currently in operation around NZ andprovideimagesindicatingtheintensityandlocationofprecipitation.SIGMETsSIGMETsprovide informationconcerning theoccurrenceorexpectedoccurrenceofweatherphenomenawhich may affect the safety of aircraft operations. Both text and graphical products are issued. ThegraphicalproductisreferredtoastheGraphicalSIGMETMonitor(GSM).TrendlandingforecastsAtrendforecastconsistsofanaviationweatherreport(METARorSPECI)towhich isappendedaconcisestatementofanysignificantchanges(expressedastrendfortheconditionsdescribedinthereport)thatareexpected tooccurduring the following twohours.A trend forecast shall supersede,during itsperiodofvalidity,theaerodromeforecast(TAF)fortheaerodromeconcerned.VolcanicAshAdvisories(VAA)andVolcanicAshGraphics(VAG)VAAandVAGprovideinformationaboutvolcanicashintheatmosphereresultingfromvolcaniceruptions.Windandtemperature(WIND/TEMP)forecastWIND/TEMPforecastsareissuedinchartformforspecificlevels.Winddirectionandspeedareindicatedatselected points bywind arrowswith feathers and shaded pennants, and spot temperatures are showncircled.7. CustomisedservicesPackagesof theproducts listed in section6above canbe tailored,packagedanddelivered tomeet therequirementsofindividualaircraftoperators.8. IssueandValidityTimes(UTC)ARFORTypeofForecast IssueNumber IssueTimes Validity IssueFrequency

    ARFOR1 1730 17300200 Daily2 2330 23301200 Daily

    GRIB

    TypeofForecast IssueNumber IssueTimes ValidityIssue

    Frequency

    GRIB(a)(b)

    1 0530 0600,1200,1800,0000,0600 Daily2 1130 1200,1800,0000,0600,1200 Daily3 1730 1800,0000,0600,1200,1800 Daily4 2330 0000,0600,1200,1800,0000 Daily

    (a) WindandtemperatureforecastsavailableforFL050,100,140,180,240,300,340,390,450,530,

    600(b) Tropopause(heightandtemperature)andmaximumwind(height,directionandspeed)available.

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    Authorised by: General Manager Aviation Sales (June 2016) Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited 2013

    SIGWXCharts

    TypeofForecast IssueNumber IssueTimesValidity

    (a)Issue

    Frequency

    HighLevel(FL250FL630)MediumLevel(FL100FL250)

    1 02300430 1800 Daily2 08301030 0000 Daily3 14301630 0600 Daily4 20302230 1200 Daily

    (a) AllSIGWXchartshaveavalidityof+/3hoursofthestatedvalidtimes.TAFs

    TypeofForecast IssueNumberIssueTimes

    (a)Validity

    Issue

    Frequency

    DomesticTAFs1 1600 16000700 Daily2 20302200 21001200 Daily

    3(b) 0300 03001900 Daily

    InternationalTAFs(c)

    1 2300 00002400 Daily2 0500 06000600 Daily3 1100 12001200 Daily4 1700 18001800 Daily

    (a) IssuetimesfordomesticTAFsareadvancedbyonehourduringdaylightsavings,(b) Thisissueisforalimitednumberofaerodromes.Itisintendedforovernightfreightoperations.(c) TAFsareissuedforAuckland,WellingtonandChristchurchInternationalAirports.WIND/TEMPCharts

    TypeofForecast IssueNumber IssueTimes Validity(a)Issue

    Frequency

    WIND/TEMP(b)1 0530 0600,1200,1800,0000,0600 Daily2 1730 1800,0000,0600,1200,1800 Daily

    (a) TheWIND/TEMPchartshaveavalidityof+/3hoursofthestatedvalidtimes.(b) ChartsavailableforFL050,100,140,180,240,300,340,390,4509. DeliveryofmeteorologicalinformationMeteorologicalinformationcanbedeliveredtocommercialoperatorsbycommercialarrangement(exceptforMetFlightGA)throughthefollowingdeliverychannels:

    InternetbasedSelfManagementSystems

    WeatherTrakIIDesignedprimarilyforusebymediumtolargeairlinesFOCs,providingautomateddeliveryofpreflightMETPackagesinitiatedandgeneratedbyflightplaningestanddeliveredvianetworkprinters,FTPdirectories,emailorfacsimile.

    CustomisedAirlinewebpages/FTPdirectories.

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    Authorised by: General Manager Aviation Sales (June 2016) Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited 2013

    MetJetCommercialwebsiteprovidesabasicpackagingandschedulingfacilitytodeliverpreflightMETPackagesviaemailorfacsimile.MetJetalsoprovidesrealtimeOPMETandgraphics.

    MetFlightCommercialwebsitewhichprovidesrealtimeOPMET,graphicsandpreflightMETthatcanbeprintedfromthewebsite.(Suitableforcommercialairtransportoperations,andcommercialflighttrainingorganisationsforoperationsatorbelow10,000ftwithinNewZealand)

    MetFlightGAwebsitewhichprovidesrealtimeOPMET,graphicsandpreflightMETthatcanbeprintedfromthewebsite(Suitableforrecreationalflightsatorbelow10,000ftinNewZealand)

    Limitedemailserviceforoneoffadhocrequestssubjectrequireatleast12hourspriorwarning.

    10. MeteorologicalObservationsandReports

    Automated METARs (METAR AUTO) have been introduced at 30 New Zealand domestic aerodromes,replacingexistingmanualMETARs.MetServiceObservationalNetwork

    FullAviationAutomaticWeatherStationsatAerodromesproducingAUTOMETARs

    Aerodrome LocationID NotesVisibilityRangeKM

    Ceilometerrange(cloudbase)ft

    Auckland NZAA 1,2 20 25,000ChathamIslands NZCI 2 20 25,000Christchurch NZCH 1,2,6 20 25,000Dunedin NZDN 2,6 50 12,000Gisborne NZGS 2 20 25,000Hamilton NZHN 2 50 12,000Hokitika NZHK 2 20 25,000Invercargill NZNV 2 50 12,000Kerikeri NZKK 2 20 25,000Manapouri NZMO 2 30 25,000Masterton NZMS 2 30 25,000Napier NZNR 2 20 12,000Nelson NZNS 2 20 12,000NewPlymouth NZNP 2 20 25,000Oamaru NZOU 2 30 25,000PalmerstonNorth NZPM 2 50 12,000Paraparaumu NZPP 2 30 12,000Pukaki NZUK 2 20 25,000Queenstown NZQN 2 50 12,000Rotorua NZRO 2 50 12,000Taupo NZAP 2 20 25,000Tauranga NZTG 2 50 25,000Timaru NZTU 2 30 25,000Wanaka NZWF 2 30 25,000Wanganui NZWU 2 30 25,000Wellington* NZWN* 1,2 20 25,000Westport NZWS 2 30 25,000Whakatane NZWK 2 30 25,000

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    Authorised by: General Manager Aviation Sales (June 2016) Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited 2013

    Whangarei NZWR 2 20 25,000Woodbourne NZWB 2 20 12,000

    Note*ManualMETARSwillcontinuetobeissuedatWellingtonAi

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