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∞ Legislators don’t have time to compile information ∞ Lobbyists present info in an organized, persuasive, factual manner ∞ Client politics – nature of

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  • Legislators dont have time to compile information

    Lobbyists present info in an organized, persuasive, factual manner

    Client politics nature of issue could give advantage to suppliers of certain information but burden on suppliers of contrary information

  • Political cue: tells official what values are at stake and if issue fits into their set of political beliefs

    Ratings: assess a representatives voting record on issues important to an interest group

  • Insider strategy: lobbyists work closely with key members of Congress

    Outsider strategy: designed to generate public pressure directly on government officials (grassroots lobbying)

    Issue public: public directly affected by government policy

    Members interest groups work with legislators with whom they agree

    Only few issues are so important that member of Congress would think that to ignore public opinion would mean losing election

  • Lobbyists try direct-mail campaigns to arouse small, passionate group to write letters/vote

    Dirty Dozen Congressmen votes against bills to help environment; lost them their re-election

    Large, well-funded interest groups rarely all-powerful

  • Money one of less effective ways to advance groups causes

    Campaign finance reform law of 1973: restricted amount any interest could give candidate; legal for corporations/labor unions to form political action committees (PACs) to make contributions

    2004, top ten PACs were labor unions, business organizations, groups representing doctors, lawyers, realtors, government employees

  • Rise of ideological PACs (+1,000: liberal, conservative)

    Make more money but give less since the way they raise it is expensive

    Most PACs spend small sums of money over many candidates

  • Hundreds leave government for jobs in private industry

    Michael K. Deaver (deputy chief of staff under Reagan) used former government contacts to help clients of public relation firm

    Works other way: Ex lawyers of Federal Trade Commission might feel will be rewarded for being especially vigorous/effective prosecutors

  • Both ends of political spectrum used disruption

    Feminists, antislavery, blacks: sit-ins to bombings

    Ku Klux Klan: terror, intimidation, murder

    Officials find selves in no-win situations