Nir Eyal, Designing for Habit-Formation, WarmGun 2013

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The Importance of User Behavior & Design Psychology


<ul><li> h Hooked @nireyal k </li> <li> Products can profoundly CHANGE OUR BEHAVIORS. </li> <li> 100s of millions of users and 100s of millions of dollars. </li> <li> ? NS T AT P R E </li> <li> Vitamins OR Pain Killers? </li> <li> PAIN KILLERS address a burning need. </li> <li> VITAMINS are nice to have. </li> <li> Vitamins OR Pain Killers? </li> <li> With habit-forming technology PLEASURE SEEKING behavior becomes PAIN ALLEVIATING behavior </li> <li> What do we mean by PAIN? </li> <li> Close your eyes. </li> <li> HOW DID YOU FEEL? </li> <li> The SOLUTION TO OUR DISCOMFORT is found in the products use. </li> <li> We are not designing for addiction Do not design bor agddiction. f e in raphic NOT must </li> <li> habit A BEHAVIOR DONE WITH LITTLE OR NO CONSCIOUS THOUGHT </li> <li> Habits can be used for good. </li> <li> Harnessing HABITS can be VERY GOOD FOR BUSINESS. </li> <li> If your business requires unprompted user engagement, </li> <li> A design pattern to help FORM BETTER PRODUCT HYPOTHESES. </li> <li> BUILDING IS EXPENSIVE </li> <li> INCREASE YOUR ODDS OF SUCCESS. </li> <li> h k The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$ connect$the$users$problem$to$your$solu7on.$ </li> <li> h with%enough%% FREQUENCY%% to%% FORM+A+HABIT.+ k </li> <li> k h A"Hook"has"4"parts:" </li> <li> A - A hook has 4 parts: T - Trigger A - Action R - Reward I - Investment </li> <li> h k </li> <li> HABITS ARE BUILT UPON like the layers of a pearl. </li> <li> Triggers come in two flavors: EXTERNAL &amp; INTERNAL </li> <li> EXTERNAL TRIGGERS The information for what to do next is within the trigger. Billboards SO DA </li> <li> INTERNAL TRIGGERS The information for what to do next is informed through an association in the users memory. </li> <li> Negative emotions are POWERFUL INTERNAL TRIGGERS. lonesome indecisive powerless tense dissatisfied confused inferior fatigued discouraged fear of loss bored lost </li> <li> People who are DEPRESSED CHECK EMAIL MORE OFTEN. Source: Kotikalapudi et al 2012 </li> <li> When we feel LONELY we use </li> <li> When we feel UNSURE we use </li> <li> When we are BORED we use </li> <li> Do you know your customers INTERNAL TRIGGER? </li> <li> What triggers make so habit-forming? </li> <li> external triggers </li> <li> solves the pain of losing the moment. </li> <li> But is also a social network. Lonely Stresse d Urge to preserve Curious Insecurity Bored </li> <li> h k </li> <li> The SIMPLEST ACTION in anticipation of a reward. </li> <li> Scroll </li> <li> Search </li> <li> Play </li> <li> m According to BJ Fogg, for any behavior to occur, we need MOTIVATION, ABILITY, and a TRIGGER </li> <li> moti vatio n THE ENERGY FOR ACTION -Edward Deci </li> <li> THERE ARE SIX FACTORS THAT CAN INCREASE MOTIVATION. Seeking Pleasure Avoiding Pain Seeking Hope Avoiding Fear Seeking Acceptance Avoiding Rejection Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University </li> <li> Seeking HOPE </li> <li> Seeking PLEASURE </li> <li> Seeking ACCEPTANCE </li> <li> Avoiding FEAR </li> <li> ABILITY the capacity to do a particular action </li> <li> Time% $ Money% Physical%eort% % Six$factors$can$increase$or$decrease$ability. Brain%cycles% Social%deviance% Non8rou:ne% Source:%Dr.%BJ%Fogg,%Stanford%University% </li> <li> NOVELTY IS A LIABILITY. </li> <li> Level of of motivation and ability determines if action will occur. MOTIV ATION TRIGGER SUCCEEDS TRIGGER FAILS Fogg Behavior Model ABILIT Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University </li> <li> Simplicity is a function of your scarcest resource at that -BJ Fogg </li> <li> through the years 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 </li> <li> through the years 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 </li> <li> through the years 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 </li> <li> h k </li> <li> Source: Olds and Milner, 1945 It all starts with the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS studied by Olds &amp; Milner. </li> <li> The nucleus accumbens is activated when we crave. </li> <li> Were Olds &amp; Milner stimulatin g pleasure? Not exactly. </li> <li> They were stimulating the STRESS OF DESIRE. </li> <li> Our reward system activates with anticipation Source: Knutson et al 2001 </li> <li> and calms when we get what we want. Source: Knutson et al 2001 </li> <li> Thats the ITCH we seek to SCRATCH. </li> <li> There is a way to supercharge the stress of desire. </li> <li> THE UNKNOWN IS FASCINATING. Variability causes us to focus and engagement </li> <li> and increases behavior. </li> <li> The nucleus accumbens is stimulated by variability. </li> <li> 3 types of VARIABLE REWARDS TRIBE HUNT SELF Habit-forming tech uses 1 OR MORE </li> <li> SEARCH FOR SOCIAL REWARDS TRI </li> <li> empath partner compet </li> <li> We Like social rewards. </li> <li> We value recognition and cooperation </li> <li> SEARCH FOR RESOURCES HU </li> <li> Stems from the hunt for food and resources </li> <li> Hunt for variable material rewards </li> <li> Hunt for variable information rewards. </li> <li> Hunters on scroll pages. </li> <li> SEARCH FOR SELF-ACHIEVEMENT SEL </li> <li> Leveling-up reflects MASTERY and COMPETENCY. </li> <li> Inbox or task management reflects CONSISTENCY and COMPLETION. </li> <li> WARNING Variable rewards are not a free pass. Your product still must address the itch. </li> <li> h k </li> <li> Users invest for future benefits. Emotional Personal Commitme Data nt Social Effort Capital Time Money </li> <li> Investments increase the likelihood of the next pass through the Hook in TWO ways. </li> <li> INVESTMENTS LOAD THE NEXT TRIGGER OF THE HOOK. 1. </li> <li> Each new message posted on </li> <li> is an open invitation for an external trigger to be returned. </li> <li> Investing in Refresh, loads the next trigger </li> <li> Loading the next trigger with Pin It button </li> <li> 2. INVESTMENTS STORE VALUE, erecting barriers to exit. </li> <li> CONTENT </li> <li> DATA </li> <li> FOLLOWERS </li> <li> REPUTATION 30 </li> <li> ! INVESTMENTS! CREATES ! PREFERENCE. </li> <li> h k The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$ connect$the$users$problem$to$your$solu7on.$ </li> <li> h With%enough%frequency,% A"HABIT"IS"FORMED." k </li> <li> A - A hook has 4 parts: T - Trigger A - Action R - Reward I - Investment </li> <li> The HOOK Canvas 1. What internal trigger is the product addressing? 2. What external trigger gets the user to the product? 4. Is the reward fulfilling, yet leaves the user wanting more? 5. What bit of work is done to increase the likelihood of returning? 3. What is the simplest behavior in anticipation of reward? </li> <li> THE MORALITY OF MANIPULATION </li> <li> Designing habit-forming products is a form of manipulation. </li> <li> What RESPONSIBILITY do we have when changing user behavior? </li> <li> THE WORLD IS FULL OF PROBLEMS TO FIX. Help others find meaning. Engage them in something important. </li> <li> Build the CHANGEin you want to see THE WORLD. </li> <li> h 1. Take the survey. k www.OpinionTo.Us ! 2. Get the slides. @nireyal </li> </ul>