Embracing process a narrative perspective 2 august 2014

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Presentation at the Academy of Management Meetings 2 August 2014. Part of a Panel for a Professional Development Workshop on "Embracing Process in Entrepreneurship Research"

Text of Embracing process a narrative perspective 2 august 2014

  • 1. Embracing Process in Entrepreneurship Research (A Narrative Perspective) William B. Gartner Copenhagen Business School / California Lutheran University wbg.mpp@cbs.dk / wgartner@callutheran.edu Academy of Management, Entrepreneurship Division, PDW August 2, 2014
  • 2. Lost http://writersalmanac.publicradio.org/index/ind ex.php?date=2006/01/11 Lost by David Wagoner from Collected Poems 1956-1976 Indiana University Press.
  • 3. Paying Attention to Entrepreneurial Process Arm Folding http://www.slideshare.net/pwoessner/systems- thinking-lli2012
  • 4. Doing Things Differently Is difficult So, how to develop routines for the non- routine?
  • 5. Or Not What if the non-routines are routine? What if difference is no-difference? What assumptions are we making about: entrepreneurs, environments, firms and processes?
  • 6. Yet why not say what happened? Epilogue Robert Lowell http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/17716 4
  • 7. What is Narrative? Narrative displays the goals and intentions of human actors; it makes individuals, cultures, societies, and historical epochs comprehensive as whole; it humanizes time; it allows us to contemplate the effects of our actions, and to alter the directions of our lives. Narrative is everywhere; it is present in myth, fable, short story, epic, history, tragedy, comedy, painting, dance, stained glass windows, cinema, social histories, fairy tales, novels, science schema, comic strips, conversation and journal articles. - (Richardson, 1990: 117)
  • 8. What is Narrative? I want you to feel what I felt. I want you to know why story truth is truer sometimes than happening-truth. . . . What stories can do, I guess, is make things present. . . [T]his is true: stories can save us. Tim OBrien, The Things They Carried
  • 9. Methods in the Humanities Men ask the way to Cold Mountain Cold Mountain: theres no through trail. In summer, ice doesnt melt The rising sun blurs in swirling fog. How did I make it? My hearts not the same as yours. If your heart was like mine Youd get it and be right here. -- Han-Shan (Gary Snyder translator)
  • 10. Methods in the Humanities Literary Historical Philosophical Aesthetic
  • 11. Facebook Mezrich, B. (2009). The Accidental Billionaires. New York: Doubleday. Fincher, D. (2010). The social network.[Movie] Directed by D Fincher, screenplay by Sorkin, A. Columbia Pictures/Sony Pictures International.
  • 12. From Clich to Insight We chase the interesting, which continually eludes us; we are chased by boredom, which continually catches us. Davis, M. S. (1999). Aphorisms and clichs: The generation and dissipation of conceptual charisma. Annual review of sociology, (25): 245-269.
  • 13. An Idiosyncratic Entrepreneurial Narrative Bibliography (The Forrest) A philosophical basis for the intersection of narrative, process and entrepreneurship Helin, J., Hernes, T., Hjorth, D. and Holt, R. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Process Philosophy and Organization Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hjorth, D. (2014). Sketching a philosophy of entrepreneurship. In R. Welter & T. Baker (Eds.), The Routledge Companion to Entrepreneurship. New York: Routledge, pp. 47-58. Ricoeur, P. (1984). Time and Narrative. 3 vols. Trans. K. McLaughlin & D. Pellauer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. Vaihinger, H. (1935). The Philosophy of As If, Trans. CK Ogden, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.
  • 14. An historical basis for the intersection of process and entrepreneurship Bucheli, M. & Wadhwani, R. D. (2013). Organizations in Time: History, Theory, Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wadhwani, R. D. & Jones, G. (2013). Schumpeter's Plea: Historical Reasoning in Entrepreneurship Research. In Bucheli, M. & Wadhwani, R. D. (Eds.) Organizations in Time: History, Theory, Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • 15. Stuff on Narrative Alvesson M, Hardy C, and Herley B (2008) Reflecting on reflexivity: Reflexive textual practices in organization and management theory. Journal of Management Studies 45: 480501. Bamberg M (2007) Narrative: State of the Art. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Boje D. M. (2001) Narrative Methods for Organizational and Communication Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Brown AD (2006) A narrative approach to collective identities. Journal of Management Studies. 43: 731753.
  • 16. Bruner, J. (1986). Actual Minds, Possible Worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Chen X, Yao X, and Kotha S (2009) Entrepreneur passion and preparedness in business plan presentations: A persuasion analysis of venture capitalists funding decisions. Academy of Management Journal 52: 199214. Clandinin DJ (2007) Handbook of Narrative Inquiry: Mapping a Methodology. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Czarniawska, B., (1997). A four times told tale: combining narrative and scientific knowledge in organization studies. Organization 4 (1), 730.
  • 17. Czarniawska B (1999) Writing Management: Organization Theory as a Literary Genre. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Downing S (2005) The social construction of entrepreneurship: Narrative and dramatic processes in the coproduction of organizations and identities. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 29: 185204. Elliott J (2005) Using Narrative in Social Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. London: SAGE. Ellis, C. S. & Bochner, A. P. (2006). Analyzing Analytic Autoethnography: An Autopsy. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 2006 35: 429-449.
  • 18. Fletcher, D. (2003). Framing organizational emergence: discourse, identity and relationship. In Steyaert, C & Hjorth, D. (Eds.) New Movements in Entrepreneurship. London: Edward Elgar, pp. 125-142. Fletcher, D. E. (2006). Entrepreneurial processes and the social construction of opportunity. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 18(5), 421-440. Fletcher, D., (2007). Toy Story: The narrative world of entrepreneurship and the creation of interpretive communities. Journal of Business Venturing 22 (5), 649672. Fletcher, D. E., & Watson, T. J. (2007). Entrepreneurship, management learning and negotiated narratives:Making it otherwise for us otherwise for them. Management Learning, 38(1), 9-26.
  • 19. Gabriel, Y., (2004). Narratives, stories and texts. In: Grant, D., Hardy, C., Oswick, C., Putnam, L. (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Organizational Discourse. Sage Publications, London, pp. 6178. Garud, R., Gehman, J., & Giuliani, A. P. (2014). Contextualizing entrepreneurial innovation: A narrative perspective. Research Policy. 43: 1177-1188. Garud, R., & Giuliani, A. P. (2013). A narrative perspective on entrepreneurial opportunities. Academy of Management Review, 38 (1), 157-160. Garud, R., Schildt, H. A., & Lant, T. K. (2014). Entrepreneurial Storytelling, Future Expectations, and the Paradox of Legitimacy. Organization Science.
  • 20. Goodman, N. (1978). Ways of worldmaking (Vol. 51). Hackett Publishing. Green S. E. Jr, Li Y, and Nohria N (2009) Suspended in self-spun webs of significance: A rhetorical model of institutionalization and institutionally embedded agency. Academy of Management Journal 52: 1136. Hatch, M.J., (1996). The rol