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  • Compressed Air Engine Seminar Guide: Dr. S Mondal Presented by : Abhishek Agarwal (101603) 1
  • Brief Recapitulation What is an engine? An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert energy into useful mechanical motion. Heat engines, including internal combustion engines and external combustion engines (such as steam engines) burn a fuel to create heat, which then creates motion. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air and otherssuch as clockwork motors in wind-up toysuse elastic energy. 2
  • Types of Engines Engines Combustion engines Internal Combustion Engines External Combustion Engines Non- combustive engines Electric Motor Physically powered Motor Pneumatic motor Hydraulic motor3
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  • History The pneumatic motor was first applied to the field of transportation in the mid-19th century. Frenchmen Andraud and Tessie of Motay ran a car powered by a pneumatic motor on a test track in Chaillot, France, on July 9, 1840. An air powered car is a car that uses an engine powered by compressed air. Invented by Guy Ngre, a French engineer; in 1991 started Moteur Development International (MDI), Luxembourg. The car can be powered solely by air or combined (as in a hybrid electric vehicle) with gasoline, diesel & ethanol. The first compressed air vehicle 5
  • Problems associated with the use of IC engines Use of gasoline results in pollution and damage to the environment. The emission of CO2 also results in Global Warming. The fossil fuels are present in limited quantity and are depleting at a very fast pace. Cost of petroleum products is increasing by leaps and bounds. High maintenance cost involved. Complexity of design.
  • COMPRESSED AIR ENGINE 7 A compressed air engine is a type of motor which does mechanical work by expanding compressed air. A compressed air engine generally convert the compressed air energy to mechanical work through either linear or rotary motion. Linear motion can come from either a diaphragm or piston actuator, while rotary motion is supplied by either a vane type air motor or piston air motor.
  • Guy Negre presenting the air car- AIRPOD 8
  • Recent Developments Energine The Energine Corporation was a South Korean company that claimed to deliver fully assembled cars running on a hybrid compressed air and electric engine. The compressed-air engine is used to activate an alternator, which extends the operating capacity of the car. K'Airmobiles K'Airmobiles vehicles were intended to be commercialized from a project developed in France in 2006-2007 by a small group of researchers. However, the project has not been able to gather the necessary funds. 9
  • EngineAir EngineAir, an Australian company, is making a rotary engine powered by compressed air, called The Di Pietro motor. The Di Pietro motor concept is based on a rotary piston the Di Pietro motor uses a simple cylindrical rotary piston (shaft driver) which rolls, with little friction, inside the cylindrical stator. It can be used in boat, cars, burden carriers and other vehicles. Only 1 psi (6,8 kPa) of pressure is needed to overcome the friction. The engine was also featured on the ABC's New Inventors programme in Australia on 24 March 2004. 10
  • Air Car by Engineair 11
  • MDI (Motor Development International) In the original Ngre air engine, one piston compresses air from the atmosphere to mix with the stored compressed air (which will cool drastically as it expands). This mixture drives the second piston, providing the actual engine power. MDI's engine works with constant torque, and the only way to change the torque to the wheels is to use a pulley transmission of constant variation, losing some efficiency. 12
  • Building Compressed Air Engine From Conventional Engine To convert a conventional IC engine into an Air Powered one, few components are to be replaced. First of all replace the spark plug with a pulsed pressure control valve which can create required pressure. 13
  • Now the pulsed air firing in this valve is controlled by controlling the supply of electrical signal to the plunger. Now fuel tank is to be replaced with air vessel as it requires pressurized air as input. And two things are to be taken care while designing air vessel: 1) First is its strength to withstand high internal pressure, which exists due to compressed air. 2) Second is its capacity to store air and its weight. 14
  • Replace cam with a modified cam. This is to be done, so that both the inlet and outlet valves open and close at the same time. Main advantage of doing this is to achieve better scavenging system. Also this will result in conversion of 4 stroke engine into 2 stroke air engine, which in turn gives us the benefit of low mean effective pressure requirement in addition to other operational benefits. 15
  • Literature Review Bharat Raj Singh1 and JP Yadav2 (2011) in their endeavour have evaluated the performance of compressed air engines. Their preliminary analysis based on the prototype calculation shows that around 3 cubic metre of air at a pressure more than 30bar can give a mileage equivalent to one litre petrol i.e. Rs 64 Cost of production of one cubic metre of air at a pressure of 50bar is Rs 3. Hence air of Rs 9 can give the mileage of Rs 64 of petrol. 16 1 Bharat Raj Singh, Associate Director, SMS Institute of Technology, Lucknow 2 JP Yadav, Associate Professor, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology
  • RESULTS AND DISCUSSION They designed the proto type for low speed, the output power; applied load was also kept low. The prime aim being to test the concept of application of with its related advantages. Indicated power = ip = p L A n K/ 60,000 kW Here, K = 2, L = 0.11, A = 0.00079 for 450 RPM ip = p L A N K/ 60 000 kW = 05 x 100000 x 011 x 000079 x 450 x2 /60000 = 0.065 kW Similarly for 570 RPM ip = 0.165 kW And for 650 RPM ip = 0.282 kW 17
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  • Information from other research papers Technical benefits: The temperature of the engine while working will be slightly less than the ambient temperature. Smooth working of the engine due to very less wear and tear of the components. There is no possibility of knocking. No need of cooling systems and spark plugs or Complex fuel injection systems 19
  • Economic benefits: Reduces the cost of vehicle production by about 20% as no need to build a cooling system, fuel tank, Ignition Systems or silencers. Compressors use electricity for generating Compressed air which is relatively much cheaper and widespread. Smooth working will lead to less wear & tear, so lesser maintenance cost 20
  • A Proven fact: Research by MDI shows that an Air Powered Car can travel 171 km by using electricity costing about Rs. 80-100 which would cost about Rs. 570 for a normal S.I. engine car giving an average of 15 kmpl 21
  • Major Technical Limitations 1. When air expands it cools dramatically and must be heated to ambient temperature using a heat exchanger similar to the Intercooler used for internal combustion engines. The heating is necessary in order to obtain a significant fraction of the theoretical energy output. The heat exchanger can be problematic. While it performs a similar task to the Intercooler the temperature difference between the incoming air and the working gas is smaller. In heating the stored air, the device gets very cold and may ice up in cool, moist climates. 22
  • Major Technical Limitations (contd.) 2. Tanks get very hot when filled rapidly. SCUBA tanks are sometimes immersed in water to cool them down when they are being filled. That would not be possible with tanks in a car and thus it would either take a long time to fill the tanks, or they would have to take less than a full charge, since heat drives up the pressure. 3. Limited capacity of storage tanks. 4. Limited Range (140- 150 Km.) 23
  • References STUDY AND DEVELOPMENT OF COMPRESSED AIR ENGINE- SINGLE CYLINDER: A REVIEW STUDY Mistry Manish K., Dr.Pravin P.Rathod ,Prof. Sorathiya Arvind S. AIR POWERED ENGINE (2011)Prof. B. S. PATEL, Mr R S BAROT, KARAN SHAH,PUSHPENDRA SHARMA Study and Fabrication of Compressed Air Engine(2011) Bharat Raj Singh and JP Yadav (2011) Sullivan, M. World's First Air-Powered Car: Zero Emissions by Next Summer, Popular Mechanics http://www. popularmechanics. Harley, M.; Ford, G.M. Considering Joint Engine Development Russell, C. The Air Car becomes a Reality, http://cambrown.wordpress.com/2007/03/27/the-air-car-becomes-a-reality/ (accessed May 2007). Moteur Development International (MDI) 24

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