Value Sensitive Design: Four Challenges

  • Published on
    07-Nov-2014

  • View
    2.224

  • Download
    1

DESCRIPTION

Ibo van de Poel's fPET-2010 presentation

Transcript

  • 1. Value Sensitive Design: Four Challenges Ibo van de Poel Associate professor Delft University of Technology Fellow-in-residence Netherlands Institute of Advanced Studies May 16, 2010 1
  • 2. What is value-sensitive design (VSD)? Systematic attempt to include values of ethical importance in design Three types of investigations: Empirical Conceptual Technical/engineering May 16, 2010 2
  • 3. Why VSD? Design is about changing the world Inherently normative Designers have being doing it all the time But make more explicit, transparent and systematic Improve design Include values that have not been commonly included so far May 16, 2010 3
  • 4. Four challenges for VSD What values to include in design? How to make these values bear on the design process? How to make choices and tradeoffs between conflicting values? How to verify whether the designed system embodies the intended values?
  • 5. The challenges Seem practical in nature But each of them is related to a deeper underlying philosophical problem My aim: clarify problems and show ways for dealing with them or even avoiding them. No clear-cut methodology for engineers
  • 6. Philosophical issues What values to include in design? What are values? Are they objective or subjective? How to make these values bear on the design process? How to bridge the gap between world of ideas and world of things? How to make choices and tradeoffs between conflicting values? Do incommensurable values preclude optimizing? How to verify whether the designed system embodies the intended values? Can technology embody values?
  • 7. 1st challenge Sources of values in design: Design brief (motivation of project) Designers (and their professional community) Users and stakeholders Codes of ethics, codes & standards, law, society May 16, 2010 7
  • 8. What values to include? This is a normative question Sources provide first approximation, but how to decide: What values are worth including and which ones not? May 16, 2010 8
  • 9. Correspondence between values and reasons V: If x is valuable or is a value one has reasons for a positive response (a pro-attitude or a pro-behavior) towards x May 16, 2010 9
  • 10. Possible positive responses Increase Maximize Respect Protect Admire Enjoy What response is appropriate will usually depend on value and the context May 16, 2010 10
  • 11. Examples of some appropriate responses in design Safety Respect safety margins Maximize overall safety Democracy Involve stakeholders in the design process Design criteria for democratic technologies (Sclove) May 16, 2010 11
  • 12. What values to include in design? (v) is helpful To distinguish real values from mere values To determine appropriate response But: Requires judgment Room for (rational) discussion and disagreement May 16, 2010 12
  • 13. 2nd challenge How to make values bear on the design process? Might require closing gap between humanities/social sciences (value inquiries) and engineering/sciences Now: focus on translation of values into design requirements
  • 14. Design requirements Desirable characteristics of the designed system Usually formulated at start of design process but may be reformulated during design Set is often incomplete and potentially conflicting Hierarchically structured
  • 15. Values hierarchy May 16, 2010 15
  • 16. Example of values hierarchy May 16, 2010 16
  • 17. Constructing a values hierarchy Can be done top-down and bottom-up Usually combination and iterative process Top-down: specification Bottom-up: for the sake of May 16, 2010 17
  • 18. Specification Non-deductive Context-dependent Adds information Scope of norm Specification of goals Specification of means Adequacy: does meeting lower level norms count as an instance of meeting higher level norm or value? May 16, 2010 18
  • 19. For the sake of Higher level elements provide reasons for striving for lower level elements For the sake of relation is antisymmetrical Higher level elements done for their own sake: intrinsic value May 16, 2010 19
  • 20. Third challenge How to make choices and tradeoffs between conflicting values? Incommensurable values For how much money are you willing to betray your friend? Incommensurable values preclude optimizing MCDM, QFD, Pugh charts, AHP
  • 21. Non optimizing approaches to value conflict in engineering Satisficing Reasoning about values Diversity Maximizing is not the (only) appropriate response to all values
  • 22. 4th challenge: How to verify whether the designed system embodies the intended values? Can technology embody values? Same technology in different (cultural) contexts realizes different values But differently designed technologies (with same function) in same user practice also realize different values Values embodied in technology + user practice

Recommended

View more >