We can all pretend that we're helping others by making web sites accessible, but we are really making the web better for our future selves. Learn some fundamentals of web accessibility and how it can benefit you (whether future you from aging or you after something else limits your abilities). We'll review simple testing techniques, basic features and enhancements, coming trends, and where to get help. This isn't intended to be a deep dive into ARIA, but more of an overall primer for those who aren't sure where to start nor how it helps them.
- 1.Selfish Accessibility Presented by Adrian Roselli for HTML5 Developer Conference 2014 I suspect theres a hashtag.
2. About Adrian Roselli Co-written four books. Technical editor for two books. Written over fifty articles, most recently for .net Magazine and Web Standards Sherpa. Great bedtime reading! 3. About Adrian Roselli Member of W3C HTML Working Group, W3C Accessibility Task Force, five W3C Community Groups. Building for the web since 1994. Founder, owner at Algonquin Studios (AlgonquinStudios.com). Learn more at AdrianRoselli.com. Avoid on Twitter @aardrian. I warned you. 4. What Well Cover Boring Statistics How to Be Selfish Basic Tests Some Techniques Questions (ongoing!) Work with me, people. 5. Boring Statistics 1 of 4 sections. 6. Any Disability In the United States: 10.4% aged 21-64 years old, 25% aged 65-74 years old, 50% aged 75+. Includes: Visual Hearing Mobility Cognitive http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en/ http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/reports/2012/English/HTML/report2012.cfm?fips=2000000&html_year=2012&subButton=Get+HTML 7. Vision Impairments 285 million worldwide: 39 million are blind, 246 million have low vision. 82% of people living with blindness are aged 50 and above. 1.8% of Americans aged 21-64. 4.0% of Americans aged 65-74. 9.8% of Americans aged 75+. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en/ http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/reports/2012/English/HTML/report2012.cfm?fips=2000000&html_year=2012&subButton=Get+HTML 8. Hearing Impairments 360 million people worldwide have disabling hearing loss. 17% (36 million) of American adults report some degree of hearing loss: 18% aged 45-64 years old, 30% aged 65-74 years old, 47% aged 75+ years old. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs300/en/ https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/Pages/quick.aspx 9. Mobility Impairments In the United States: 5.5% aged 21-64 years old. 15.6% aged 65-74 years old. 32.9% aged 75+. http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/reports/2012/English/HTML/report2012.cfm?fips=2000000&html_year=2012&subButton=Get+HTML 10. Cognitive Impairments Dyslexia Dyscalculia Memory issues Distractions In the United States: 4.3% aged 21-64 years old. 5.4% aged 65-74 years old. 14.4% aged 75+. http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/reports/2012/English/HTML/report2012.cfm?fips=2000000&html_year=2012&subButton=Get+HTML 11. How to Be Selfish 2 of 4 sections. 12. WebAIMs Hierarchy for Motivating Accessibility Change http://webaim.org/blog/motivating-accessibility-change/ 13. My Hierarchy for Motivating Accessibility Change Is better, no? 14. Getting Older Affects (nearly) everyone, Carries risks and side effects, Is not for the young. Im still experimenting with it. 15. Rising Damp on Flickr. 16. Darren Baldwin on Flickr. 17. Accidents Broken limbs, Eye injuries, Hearing injuries, Head trauma. All of these have happened to me, multiple times. 18. James Lee on Flickr. 19. Rev Stan on Flickr. 20. Let Ideas Compete on Flickr. 21. Fluffy Steve on Flickr. 22. Paul Townsend on Flickr. 23. But Im Invincible! Multi-tasking, Sunlight, Eating at your desk, No headphones handy, Content is not in your native language. The sun is trying to kill me. 24. Shawn Liu on Flickr. 25. Bitznbitez on Flickr. 26. Marille on Flickr. 27. barockschloss on Flickr. 28. Seb on Flickr. 29. A.Davy on Flickr. 30. Raul Lieberwirth on Flickr. 31. Tim Norris on Flickr. 32. Lars Kristian Flem on Flickr. 33. Steve Rhodes on Flickr. 34. SuperFantastic on Flickr. 35. Jacob Enos on Flickr. 36. https://twitter.com/aardrian/statuses/388733408576159744 37. Tech Support Think of your family! Think of your time spent helping them! This is why we hate the holidays. 38. Robert Simmons on Flickr. 39. The Message Supporting accessibility now helps to serve future you. Supporting accessibility now helps injured you, encumbered you. Getting younger developers to buy in helps future you if you teach them well. There is no try. 40. Basic Tests 3 of 4 sections. 41. Click on Field Labels When you click label text next to a text box, does the cursor appear in the field? When you click label text next to a radio / checkbox, does it get toggled? When you click label text next to a select menu, does it get focus? http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/09/05/the-6-simplest-web-accessibility-tests-anyone-can-do/ 42. Unplug Your Mouse Turn off your trackpad, stick, trackball, etc. Can you interact with all controls (links, menus, forms) with only the keyboard? Can you tell which item has focus? Does the tab order match your expectation? http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/09/05/the-6-simplest-web-accessibility-tests-anyone-can-do/ 43. Turn off Images Can you still make sense of the page? Is content missing? Can you still use the site? Is your alt text useful? http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/09/05/the-6-simplest-web-accessibility-tests-anyone-can-do/ 44. Turn on High Contrast Mode Windows only. Background images and colors are replaced. Text colors are replaced. Does this make your site unusable? http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/09/05/the-6-simplest-web-accessibility-tests-anyone-can-do/ http://blog.adrianroselli.com/2012/08/css-background-images-high-contrast-mode.html 45. Turn off CSS Does important content or functionality disappear? Do error messages or other items that rely on visual cues make sense? Is content still in a reasonable order? Do any styles (colors, text effects, etc.) remain? http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/09/05/the-6-simplest-web-accessibility-tests-anyone-can-do/ 46. Test for Colorblindness/Contrast Is there enough contrast? Are hyperlinks, menus, etc. still visible? Tools: Chrome Color Contrast Analyzer Lea Verous Contrast Ratio WebAIM Color Contrast Checker CheckMyColours.com http://www.inpixelitrust.fr/blog/en/tips-create-accessible-color-palette/ http://alistapart.com/blog/post/easy-color-contrast-testing 47. Protanopia 48. Deuteranopia 49. Tritanopia 50. Look for Captions & Transcripts Do video/audio clips have text alternatives? Are links to closed-captions or transcripts built into the player or separate text links? Is there an audio description available? Tools: Media Access Australia YouTube captioning tutorial, Vimeo captioning tutorial Tiffany Browns WebVTT tutorial http://webaim.org/techniques/captions/ 51. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zCqN_cCLnnk 52. Hyperlinks! Is there any click here, more, link to? Are you using all-caps, URLs, emoticons? Do you warn before opening new windows? Do links to downloads provide helpful info? Are you using pagination links? Are your links underlined (or otherwise obvious)? Is there alt text for image links? Is the link text consistent? http://www.sitepoint.com/15-rules-making-accessible-links/ 53. http://blog.adrianroselli.com/2014/03/i-dont-care-what-google-did-just-keep.html 54. Some Techniques 4 of 4 sections. 55. WAI-ARIA Web Accessibility Initiative Accessible Rich Internet Applications. Adds accessibility information to HTML elements. Can be used with prior versions of HTML. WAI-ARIA 1.0 published March 20, 2014. http://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria/ 56. Four Five Rules of ARIA Use 1. If you can use a native HTML5 element with semantics/behavior already built in, then do so, instead of repurposing another element. RT this! https://twitter.com/aardrian/status/454249142387081219 57. Four Five Rules of ARIA Use 2. Do not change native semantics. Unless you really have to (no with a role="button", for example). RT this! https://twitter.com/aardrian/status/454249201564532737 58. Four Five Rules of ARIA Use 3. All interactive ARIA controls must be usable with the keyboard keyboard users must be able to perform equivalent actions. RT this! https://twitter.com/aardrian/status/454249253284483072 59. Four Five Rules of ARIA Use 4. Do not use role="presentation" or aria- hidden="true" on a focusable element. If you do so, some users will never be able to focus. RT this! https://twitter.com/aardrian/status/454249297408585729 60. Four Five Rules of ARIA Use 5. All interactive elements must have an accessible name (in progress). This may come from a visible (text on a button) or invisible (alt text on an image) property. As of May 12: http://rawgit.com/w3c/aria-in-html/master/index.html#fifth-rule-of-aria-use Accessible name: http://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria/terms#def_accessible_name 61. Role Playing Stolen from Heydon Pickering: https://twitter.com/heydonworks/status/420196676297424898/ 62. HTML/ARIA Dont
Do a thing.
I see this all the time. 63. HTML/ARIA Dont
Do a thing.
I see this a bunch, too. 64. HTML/ARIA Dont
Do a thing.
Excluded bits like if(event.keyCode==32||event.keyCode==13)DoThing(); 65. HTML/ARIA Dont
Do a thing.
ARIA roles to the rescue! Er 66. HTML/ARIA Do Do a thing. Or just start with the right element. http://www.karlgroves.com/2013/05/14/links-are-not-buttons-neither-are-divs-and-spans/ 67. WAI-ARIA Accessibility Lipstick on a Usability Pig By Jared Smith: http://webaim.org/blog/accessibility-lipstick-on- a-usability-pig/ What is WAI-ARIA, what does it do for me, and what not? By Marco Zehe: http://www.marcozehe.de/2014/03/27/what-is- wai-aria-what-does-it-do-for-me-and-what-not/ ARIA ALL THE THINGS! 68. HTML5 Elements Sectioning elements already have accessibility built in. Use them. (one per page) (a search form) This stuff is baked in! 69. HTML5/ARIA Landmarks They dont always have support in assistive technologies (AT), so use roles as well. (once per page) (one per page) (once per page) http://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/wiki/Using_ARIA_landmarks_to_identify_regions_of_a_page 70. Generic Desktop Layout 71. Generic Mobile Layout Mobile really means narrow