PD 102: Chapters 9 & 10Chapter 9: Think The goal of this chapterUnderstand why and how we formulate thoughts and ideas
What is critical thinking? Searching, plotting, making associations, explaining, analyzing, probing for multiple angles, justifying, scrutinizing, making decisions, solving problems, and investigating It is literally thinking about something from many angles Example: the nurse who sensed something was wrong and noticed the error in the medication chart, the marketing expert who developed the winning campaign for Mountain Dew The Importance of critical thinkingAs a student, critical thinking can help you focus on issues; gather relevant, accurante information; remember facts; organize thoughts logically; analyze questions and problems; and manage your priorities Can assist in your problem solving skills and help you control your emotions so that you can make rational judgments Can help you produce new knowledge through research and analysis and help you determine the accuracy of printed and spoken words How Critical thinking can help youWhom to dateWhom to trustIn whom you can confideHow seriously involved you should getHow to develop a realistic budgetIf you should charge or lay awayHow much to save to pay tuition and feesHow to search for scholarships Relationships FinancesA plan for critical thinking Critical thinking involves:Restraining emotionsLooking at things differentlyAnalyzing informationAsking questionsSolving problems
Distinguishing fact from opinionSeeking truth in argument and perusasion How to build a critical thinking plan for your academic and personal successStep 1: Restrain emotionsListen to all sides of the argument before you make a decision or form an opinionMake a conscious effort to identify which emotions are causing you to lose objectivityDont let your emotions make you withdraw or turn you away from the situationDont let yourself become engaged in Im right, youre wrong situationsWork to understand why others feel their side is valid Control your negative self talkDetermine whether your emotions are irrational Step Two: Looking at things differentlyLook at issues from different angles Get below the surfacePenny Exercise, page 223 Step 3: analyzing information To analyze, you break a topic, statement, or problem into parts to understand it more clearly An easy way to analyze is to create a chart of the information using right and left hand columns Use a question to analyze a situationLets analyze the following: How can an undeclared student take steps to decide on a career? This method can also be used to formulate new information on a subject Step 4: asking questions Questioning is a technique used for exploring, developing, and acquiring new knowledge Asking questions can be funQuestioning involves going beyond the obvious If you were assigned to write a paper or give a speech on the topic of childhood obesity, what five questions would you definitely want that paper or sppech to answer when you were finished?
STEP 5: Solving problems There are many ways to address and solve problems Every problem does have a solution, but the solution may not be what we wanted Identify and narrow the problem by putting your problem in writing Jot down all aspects of the problem, such as why its a problem, whom it affects, and what type of problem it is Research and develop alternatives (brainstorm) Brainstorming example Write down 2-3 career options available to you upon graduation using the brainstorming method below:1) Identify the topic, problem, or statement to be discussed2) Set a time limit for the entire brainstorming session3) Write all ideas on a board or flip chart 4) Let everyone speak5) Dont criticize people for their remarks6) Concentrate on the issue; let all of your ideas flow 7) Suspend judgment until al ideas are produced or the time is up8) If youre using the session to generate questions rather than solutions, each participant should pose questions rather than make statements Dont worry about content, clarity or quality Just let your ideas flow Verbalize these ideas when the class brainstorms this problem Evaluate the alternatives by Creating 2 columns (A-Ideas, B-Comments) Step 6: distinguishing fact from opinion One of the most important aspects of critical thinking is the ability to distinguish fact from opinion A fact is something that can be proven, something that can be objectively verified An opinion is a statement that is held to be true, but one that has no objective proof Statements that cannot be proved should always be treated as opinion Step six; distinguishing fact from fiction (contd) Guidelines:If you are in doubt, ask questions and listen for solid proof and documentation to support the statementListen for what is not said in a statementDont be le astray by those you assume are trustworthy and loyal Dont be turned off by those you fear or consider untruthfulDo your own homework on the issue; read, research, and questionIf you are unsure about the credibility of the source or information, treat the statement as opinion Step seven: seeking truth in arguments and persuasion Its important to be able to recognize faulty arguments and implausible or deceptive persuasion When someone threatens to alienate, disapprove, or do something to harm you if you dont agree with them, they are using an ad baculum argument (fallacious argument) When someone says that you should believe or do something because everyones doing it, they are using an ad populum argument If someone tries to scare you into doing something, they are using a scare tacticWhen a politician tries to get you to vote for him or her because he/shes just like you and me, thats a plain folks argument Creative thinking Creative thinking is much like critical thinking in that you are producing something that is uniquely yours Creative thinking means that you have examined a situation and developed a new way of explaining information, delivering a product, or using an item Creative thinking means that you have opened your mind to possibilities
Julia cameron, The artists wayThe Artists Way: A Spiritual Path to Higher CreativityJulia suggests that there are basic principles of creativity: 1) Creativity is the natural order of life2) There is an underlying, indwelling creative force infusing all of life3) We are, ourselves, creations. And we, in turn, are meant to create ourselves4) The refusal to be creative is counter to our true nature Creative thinking involves:CompassionCourageTruthDreamsRisk takingInnovation
Apply creative thinking to this problem: Jennifer is a first-year student who does not have enough money to pay her tuition, buy her books, and purchase a few new outfits and shoes to wear to class and her work-study job on campus. What should she do? Should she pay her tuition and purchase her books, or pay her tuition and buy new clothes and shoes to wear to class and work? What creative ideas (solutions) can you give Jennifer? Chapter 10: Prosper No one can tell you what your lifes work is, but it is important that you find it. There is a part of you that already knows; affirm that part. - Willis W. Harman What am I going to do for the rest of my life? You dont have to decide today Take your time; research a variety of careers that you think might interest you Get a part time job in the field that you think might interest you as a career; shadow someone According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, in the year 2010, the U.S. economy should support about 167 million jobs, yet the labor force will only be able to fill about 157 million You will be graduating at a time when demand should be excellent for college grads The coming job boom for college gradsThe job market is cyclical- up one day and down another College grads who have the right skills, work attitudes, and habits will be in the drivers seat There is a current shortage of college professors, a profession that offers a very rewarding career The Ten Fastest-Growing Jobs1) Network systems and data communications analyst2) Physicians Assistant3) Computer software engineer, applications4) Computer software engineer, systems software 5) Network and computer systems 6) Database administrator7) Physical therapist8) Medical scientist9) Occupational therapist10) College instructor Your Career May Change FrequentlyTechnology is impacting everything we do You need to take charge of your own destiny, seeking the right career, the professors who can teach you the most, the temporary jobs that can prepare you for the real career path, and the extracurricular activities that will give you leadership experience Read, read, read! Learn to follow direction and think for yourselfPractice thinking creatively to solve new problems Improve your writing and speaking skills Become an expert with computer applications Career planning The service industries, along with health, engineering, business management, and social services, will offer the best opportunities in the coming years Plan for a career- not a series of jobsFor nontraditional students, spouses, time, and finances may dictate a profession You want your career decisions to be well thought out, well planned, and carefully executed Why are relationships important to my career? Community emerges when a group of people do the following: 1) Participate in common practices2) Depend on one another3) Make decisions together4) Identify themselves as part of something larger than the sum of their individual relationships5) commit themselves for the long term to their own, to one anothers, and to the groups well being When you enter the world of work, your community will consist of colleagues over whom you have little control Relationships with diverse others To experience other people and to receive the benefits of knowing someone, you need to enter all relationships wit