Intelligent cities 1 - Concepts

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  • INTELLIGENT CITIES Concept

    Nicos KomninosURENIO Research, Aristotle University

    www.urenio.org

    PhD seminar Intelligent cities: Systems and Environment of Innovation

    Lecture 1

  • Contents

    Conceptualization

    Intelligent cities driving forces

  • InfrastructureDistrict planning

    MASTER PLAN

    Transport

    Environment

    Industry Housing Districts

    University

    Science Parks and Incubators

    Clusters

    CBD

    Layer I. Agglomeration, clusters and networks

    Layer II. Institutions, Planning, Governance

    City: Fundamental layers throughout its historyAgglomeration + Regulation Institutions

    Infrastructure

    District planning

    MASTER PLAN

    Transport

    Environment

    Industry Housing Districts

    University

    Science Parks and Incubators

    Clusters

    CBD

    INDUSTRIAL CITY

    Infrastructure

    District planning

    MASTER PLAN

    Transport

    Environment

    Industry Housing Districts

    University

    Science Parks and Incubators

    Clusters

    CBD

    VICTORIAN CITY

    Infrastructure

    District planning

    MASTER PLAN

    Transport

    Environment

    Industry Housing Districts

    University

    Science Parks and Incubators

    Clusters

    CBD

    FORDIST CITY

    Infrastructure

    District planning

    MASTER PLAN

    Transport

    Environment

    Industry Housing Districts

    University

    Science Parks and Incubators

    Clusters

    CBD

    INNOVATION-LED

    Development

    PLANNING

  • B. A new spatiality / layer (digital / intelligence) has been added on the urban agglomeration, activities, infrastructures, regulation and planning. It is composed of broadband networks, user interfaces, content applications, and e-services. All these artcrafts create un umbrella of communication and cooperation over the cities, locally and globally.

    City: Beginning of 21st century - A new type of urban spaceTwo driving forces: Innovation-led economy + Digital spatiality

    A. The contemporary urban economy and society has become knowledge-basedand innovation-led: Knowledge cities, innovation cities, innovating cities, creative cities. R&D, knowledge and innovation are main drivers of citys development. City governance and planning also change by public-private partnerships and triple-helix alliances.

    +

  • A. Innovation-led economy / Knowledge-based citiesLocal innovation systems, clusters, supply chains, alliances, institutions

    Social and economic base of innovation-led / knowledge cities:Innovation systems explain innovation performance with respect to networks and interactions

    among companies, universities, and government. The internal dynamic of an innovation system creates a perpetual cycle borne out of the critical inputs of intellectual and financial capital, translated into new technologies and products that lead to new firm formation and job creation, generating revenues that may be re-invested into the system (John Adams Innovation Institute 2007).

    Evolutionary theory and the role of external environment selecting innovationsGeographical clustering of innovation, tacit knowledge, trust relations and alliancesOpen innovation, co-design, end-user involvement in innovation / real city environments

    R&DInnovatio

    n

    funding

    Producti

    on

    re-

    tooling

    New

    product

    developm

    ent

    Strategic

    company

    planning

    Market

    researchProduc

    tion

    runs

    RESEARCH AND

    TECHNOLOGICAL

    DEVELOPMENTResearch institutesUniversity researchR&D in large companies

    Innovative SMEs

    INNOVATION FINANCEVenture capital fundsTechnology incentives

    Regional incentives and aidsSpin-offs / start-ups NEW PRODUCT

    DEVELOPMENTProvision of management,

    product, market, and quality services

    Specialised centresBusiness consultants

    PROCESS INNOVATION

    Clusters and networks

    Technology co-operationSupply chains

    AlliancesDistribution & Promotion

    TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

    Co-operation between

    universities and companies

    Technology brokerageLicensing

  • B. Digital spatiality / intelligence over the citiesComponents: NetworkData technologiesApplications-eServices

    `

    Fiber Optics, 3G, WiMAX, WiFi Mess, Cable/DSL, WiFi

    On-line On-line

    n-line

    On-line

    e-marketplace

    Information

    To the citizen To producers City events Location of activities

    Digital Entrepreneurship

    e-Marketplaces e-Location e-Business

    Visualisation

    The city Cultural heritage Monuments Place & environment

    e-Innovation

    Collaborative spaces New product development tools

    Broadband city networkFiber oprics, 3G, WiMax, WiFi, xDSL

    e-Government

    Online city services Online administration e-Democracy

    e-Technologies

    Knowledge repository Exploitation eTools Online tech transfer

    Data-Technologies

    Network Applications

    e-Services

  • Industry Housing Districts

    University

    Science Parks and Incubators

    Clusters

    CBD

    Layer I. Agglomeration, clusters and networks

    Layer II. Institutions, Planning, Governance

    Layer III. Digital spatiality over the city

    Intelligent city: A three layer systemA more advanced, complex and effective urban system

    INNOVATION PLAN

    Smart transport

    Smart Infrastructure

    Cluster planning

    Environmental sustainability

  • Advanced knowledge functions

    1. e-INFORMATION: Gathering, processing and delivery

    2. e-LEARNING: Skill development, technology transfer, technology acquisition

    3. e-INNOVATION: Creation of new products and services. Digital tools and environments for new product design and production. Local and global innovation supply chains.

    4. e-DIFFUSION: Marketing, promotion, delivery of products and services

    Intelligent cities: Impact from adding a digital layerAdvanced knowledge functions Improved city functions

    Improved city functions

    Competitive cities based on global clusters, networks, and supply chains

    Innovative cities: Innovation crowdsourcing + global innovation chains

    Energy saving infrastructure

    Improved city transportation

    More secure urban space

    Real time monitoring and management of the environment

    Wider citizens participation to decision making

  • Intelligent cities: ImpactThe integration of digital space transforms city functions and districts

    Innovation Economy 1- Intelligent city clusters: manufacturing, business

    services, health, tourism

    2- Intelligent city districts: CBD, techno park, mall, university campus, port area, airport city

    3- New companies creation / intelligent incubators

    City Infrastructure Quality of life 4- Smart transport and parking

    5- Broadband, wi-fi

    6-Energy saving / smart grid

    7- Environment monitoring, real time alert and safety

    Governance 8- Government services to citizens

    9- Decision making / participation / direct democracy

    10- Monitoring & measurement: The city a database

  • Conceptualization

  • A new family of concepts: Cyber - Digital - Intelligent Smart cities

    Many different descriptions of what an intelligent city (IC) is can be found in the literature:

    ICs have been initially identified with virtual reconstructions of cities, virtual cities. The term has been used interchangeably as an equivalent of digital city covering a wide range of digital representations of the physical space of cities (Droege 1997). However, the additional communication capabilities offered by a virtual platform or a virtual reconstruction of a city is not adequate to characterize an urban system as 'intelligent'.

    In a metaphorical use of the term, ICs have been seen as a commonplace for various electronic IT systems and digital applications involved in city operations and functions. MIMOS, the Malaysian Telecommunications Institute, pointed out that the metaphorical characterizations of the Intelligent City cover many concepts such as the invisible city', information city, 'wired city', 'telecity', knowledge-based city', virtual city, electronic communities, 'electronic spaces', 'flexicity', teletopia', 'cyberville', etc., where each term stresses a specific functional activity.

    Another meaning was given by the World Foundation for Smart Communities, that links digital cities with smart growth, a development based on information and communication technologies. A Smart Community is a community that has made a conscious effort to use information technology to transform life and work within its region in significant and fundamental, rather than incremental, ways (California Institute for Smart Communities, 2001).

    ICs were seen as environments with embedded information and communication technologies creating interactive spaces that bring computation into the physical world user (Steventon and Wright 2006). From this perspective, intelligent cities (or intelligent spaces more generally) refer to physical environments in which information and communication technologies and sensor systems disappear as they become embedded into physical objects and the surroundings we live, travel, and work in.

    Intelligent cities were also defined as territories that bring innovation and ICTs within the same locality. The Intelligent Community Forum has developed a list of five criteria for understanding how communities and regions can gain a competitive edge by combining broadband co