Atomic scale magnetic memory

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2. INTRODUCTION 3. Older Data StoringTechnologyMagnetic Tape Magnetic recorders have been around in one form or another since the end of the 19th century and were used to make audio recordings long before any of their other uses. The first form to come into widespread use was the analog tape. In an analog tape, a stripof plastic coated with a thin magnet coating is wound between two reels. To make a recording, the motor in the tape recorder unwinds the tape past an electromagnet, called the write head, at a steady rate. 4. A recording medium consisting of a thin tape with a coating of a fine magnetic material, used forrecording analogue or digital data. Data isstored in frames across the width of the tape. The frames are grouped into blocks or recordswhich are separated from other blocks bygaps. 5. Floppy DiskA floppy disk is a thin magnetic-coateddisk contained in a flexible or semi-rigid protective jacket.Data is stored in tracks and sectors.Double sided high density 3.5" diskscan hold 1.44 Mb of data. 6. Optical DiskAn optical disk is impressed with aseries of spiral pits in a flat surface.A master disk is burnt by high-intensitylaser beams in bit-patterns from whichsubsequent copies are formed whichcan be read optically by laser. 7. Pen DriveFlash memory combines a number of older technologies, with lower cost, lower power consumption and small size made possible by advances in microprocessor technology. The memory storage was based on earlier EPROM and EEPROM technologies.Standard-A USB plug provides a physical interface to the host computer.USB mass storage controller a small microcontroller with a small amount of on-chip ROM and RAM.NAND flash memory chip(s) stores data (NAND flash is typically also used in digital cameras).Crystal oscillator produces the devices main 12 MHz clock signal and controls the devices data output through a phase-locked loop. 8. What is Atomic-Scale MemoryStorage? Using an unconventional form of magnetism calledantiferromagnetism, scientists demonstrated anew, experimental atomic-scale magnet memory thatis at least 100 times denser than todays hard diskdrives and solid state memory chips. IBM researchers have demonstrated a new kind ofmemory bit that uses only 12 atoms. Until now, it wasunknown how many atoms it would take to build areliable magnetic memory bit, IBM said. Throughtheir research, they found the answer to be 12. Theaccomplishment is the culmination of nearly 30 yearsof nanotechnology research, IBM said 9. How It Works?? 10. With properties similar to those of magnets on arefrigerator, ferromagnets use a magneticinteraction between its constituent atoms thatalign all their spins the origin of the atomsmagnetism in a single direction. Ferromagnetshave worked well for magnetic data storage buta major obstacle for miniaturizing this down toatomic dimensions is the interaction ofneighbouring bits with each other. Themagnetization of one magnetic bit can stronglyaffect that of its neighbour as a result of itsmagnetic field. Harnessing magnetic bits at theatomic scale to hold information or performuseful computing operations requires precisecontrol of the interactions between the bits. 11. Writing and reading amagnetic byte Figure shows a magnetic byte imaged 5 timesin different magnetic states to store the ASCIIcode for each letter of the word THINK, acorporate mantra used by IBM since 1914.The team achieved this using 96 iron atoms one bit was stored by 12 atoms and there areeight bits in each byte. 12. The Basic ConceptThe researchers started with one iron atomand used the tip of scanning tunnelingmicroscope to switch magnetic informationin successive atoms. They worked theirway up until eventually they succeeded instoring one bit of magnetic informationreliably in 12 atoms. The tip of thescanning tunneling microscope was thenused to switch the magnetic information inthe bits from a zero to a one and backagain, allowing researchers to storeinformation. 13. Smashing Moores LawWhich says that the number of transistorson a microchip willapproximately double every two years. 14. Potential Area of UsageSuper Computers: 15. Online Database: 16. Military Database: 17. Satellites: 18. ISSUES The technique lends itself to the development of newmagnetic storage and spintronic devices, the IBMresearchers wrote in the paper. However, the use ofthe method for commercial production faces somehurdles: for example, small, energy-thrifty mobiledevices cannot support the infrastructure needed forthe scanning and tunnelling microscope required. Another issue is that the test device works at 1Kelvin, just a degree above absolute zero. Even so,the researchers found that a bit of information can beencoded at room temperature with groups of 150atoms, which is still much smaller than the millionatoms required in contemporary electronics. 19. ANY QUESTION 20. Submitted ByASHISH SINGH PRN-0900001099B-TECH SEM VII COMPUTER-IUnder the Guidance of -:Prof. ASHWANI C. MADANE BVDU COE , PUNE