2/08 Presentation on Biodiesel and Yokayo Biofuels

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An introduction to biodiesel, the typical manufacturing process, the process used by Yokayo Biofuels, and the state of the movement and industry.

Text of 2/08 Presentation on Biodiesel and Yokayo Biofuels

  • 1. Biodiesel: The Fuel, the Industry, and the State of the Movement Kumar Plocher 2/08

2. Whats in the Jar?

  • Biodiesel is the trade name for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)

3. Whats in the Jar?

  • Biodiesel is the trade name for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)
  • Biodiesel is any kind of fatty acid that has been permanently thinned throughtransesterification .

4. Whats in the Jar?

  • Biodiesel is the trade name for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)
  • Biodiesel is any kind of fatty acid that has been permanently thinned throughtransesterification .
  • A particular biodiesels source oil is known as its feedstock

5. Whats in the Jar?

  • Biodiesel is the trade name for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)
  • Biodiesel is any kind of fatty acid that has been permanently thinned throughtransesterification .
  • A particular biodiesels source oil is known as its feedstock
  • Biodiesel can be dark or light, and comprises many different colors and many different smells

6. Transesterification

  • The basic ingredients for 1 L of biodiesel production, using the simplest possible method:
      • 1 liter of virgin, uncooked vegetable oil
      • 200 milliliters of methyl alcohol (methanol)
      • 5 grams of Sodium Hydroxide (lye)
      • Yields approximately 1 L biodiesel,
      • 200 milliliters glycerol byproduct

7. Transesterification

  • The lye is dissolved into the methanol to produce sodium methoxide.

8. Transesterification

  • The lye is dissolved into the methanol to produce sodium methoxide.
  • The sodium methoxide is introduced into the vegetable oil.

9. Transesterification

  • The lye is dissolved into the methanol to produce sodium methoxide.
  • The sodium methoxide is introduced into the vegetable oil.
  • The mixture is agitated for approximately 15 minutes.

10. Transesterification

  • The lye is dissolved into the methanol to produce sodium methoxide.
  • The sodium methoxide is introduced into the vegetable oil.
  • The mixture is agitated for approximately 15 minutes.
  • The mixture is given time to settle into biodiesel and glycerol byproduct.

11. Whats Happening?

  • The triglyceride molecule is cracked into a glycerol molecule and three esters
  • The esters re-attach to methanol molecules, forming methyl esters
  • A crude glycerol byproduct is created

12. In the Real World Not all feedstocks are created equal, and often times the cheapest and easiest to acquire are, in many ways, the hardest to work with. Feedstocks that are higher in Free Fatty Acids (i.e. used fryer oil), known as FFAs, require atitrationthat determines how much extra lye is needed to compensate for the oils acidity. Feedstocks that arereallyhigh in FFAs may require alternatives to lye, alternative amounts of alcohol, and different production processes entirely. 13. Yokayo Transesterification

  • A typical batch of Yokayo Biofuels biodiesel:
      • 1100 gallons of screened, heated, dewatered, filtered used fryer oil
      • ~275 gallons of methanol (varies, based on titration), split into 2 stages (i.e. 230/45)
      • ~140 lbs. of Potassium Hydroxide (KOH; varies, based on titration), split into 2 stages (i.e. 120/20)
      • We mix for 2 hours, settle for 1 1/2 hours, drain the glycerol, and then do the second stage, which is another 2 hours of mixing followed by overnight settling. The reaction is done around 130 deg F, at atmospheric pressure, in a stainless steel reaction vessel. A simple test for conversion completion is performed before the batch is deemed finished. Sometimes, 3 or more stages are necessary.
      • Yields approximately 1000 gallons biodiesel,
      • ~300 gallons crude glycerol byproduct

14. Whats Next

  • The crude methyl esters (not yet biodiesel) go into a wash process.
  • - 3 stage water misting with progressive agitation

15. Whats Next

  • The crude methyl esters (not yet biodiesel) go into a wash process.
  • - 3 stage water misting with progressive agitation
  • The crude glycerol goes into settling tanks to recover biodiesel.
  • - Then on to purification or low value uses

16. Whats Next

  • The crude methyl esters (not yet biodiesel) go into a wash process.
  • - 3 stage water misting with progressive agitation
  • The crude glycerol goes into settling tanks to recover biodiesel.
  • - Then on to purification or low value uses
  • The fuel is still not considered biodiesel until it has been dehydrated and filtered and meets the ASTM spec

17. The ASTM Standard, D 6751

  • Property Method Limits Units
  • Water & SedimentD27090.050 MAX% vol.
  • Kinematic Viscosity,D4451.9-6.0mm2/Sec.
  • Sulfated AshD8740.020 MAX% mass
  • Sulfur
  • S 15 Grade D54530.0015 MAX% mass
  • S 500 Grade D5453 0.05 MAX % mass
  • Copper Strip corrosionD130No. 3 MAX
  • Alcohol Content (one of the following must be met)
  • Methanol Content EN14110 0.20 MAX % vol.
  • Flashpoint, closed cup D93 130 MIN C
  • Cetane Number D61347 MIN
  • CloudpointD2500Report to Customer C
  • Carbon ResidueD45300.050 MAX% mass
  • Acid NumberD6640.50 MAXmg KOH/g
  • Free GlycerineD65840.020 MAX% mass
  • Total GlycerineD65840.24 MAX% mass
  • Phosphorus D4951 10 MAX ppm
  • Vacuum Distillation End Point D1160 360 MAX C
  • Oxidative Stability EN14112 3 MIN hours
  • Calcium and Magnesium (combined) EN14538 5 MAX ppm
  • Sodium and Potassium (combined) EN14538 5 MAX ppm

18. Biodiesel Benefits

  • Is CO 2 -neutral

19. Biodiesel Benefits

  • Is CO 2 -neutral
  • Much lower emissions than petroleum diesel

20. Biodiesel Benefits

  • Is CO 2 -neutral
  • Much lower emissions than petroleum diesel
  • No sulfur fuel (can be used with catalytic converter)

21. Biodiesel Benefits

  • Is CO 2 -neutral
  • Much lower emissions than petroleum diesel
  • No sulfur fuel (can be used with catalytic converter)
  • Domestically sourced and manufactured

22. Biodiesel Benefits

  • Is CO 2 -neutral
  • Much lower emissions than petroleum diesel
  • No sulfur fuel (can be used with catalytic converter)
  • Domestically sourced and manufactured
  • Higher lubricity

23. Biodiesel Benefits

  • Is CO 2 -neutral
  • Much lower emissions than petroleum diesel
  • No sulfur fuel (can be used with catalytic converter)
  • Domestically sourced and manufactured
  • Higher lubricity
  • Takes advantage of high fuel economy of diesel engines

24. Biodiesel Benefits

  • Is CO 2 -neutral
  • Much lower emissions than petroleum diesel
  • No sulfur fuel (can be used with catalytic converter)
  • Domestically sourced and manufactured
  • Higher lubricity
  • Takes advantage of high fuel economy of diesel engines
  • Is only alternative fuel to have completed EPA Tier I & II
  • Health Effects Testing

25. Biodiesel Benefits

  • Is CO 2 -neutral
  • Much lower emissions than petroleum diesel
  • No sulfur fuel (can be used with catalytic converter)
  • Domestically sourced and manufactured
  • Higher lubricity
  • Takes advantage of high fuel economy of diesel engines
  • Is only alternative fuel to have completed EPA Tier I & II
  • Health Effects Testing
  • Is plug and play w/existing petroleum infrastructure

26. Biodiesel Benefits

  • Is CO 2 -neutral
  • Much lower emissions than petroleum diesel
  • No sulfur fuel (can be used with catalytic converter)
  • Domestically sourced and manufactured
  • Higher lubricity
  • Takes advantage of high fuel economy of diesel engines
  • Is only alternative fuel to have completed EPA Tier I & II
  • Health Effects Testing
  • Is plug a