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GCE Physical Education (6726) paper 01
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Unit 6 – Scientific Principles of Exercise and Performance
SECTION A – Exercise and Energy Systems
1(a)(i) 1. More energy is released from aerobic glycolysis than lactic acid / anaerobic glycolysis.
2. Aerobic glycolysis can produce up to 36/38 molecules of ATP from 1 molecule of glucose (accept 32/34 as aerobic yield)
3. The lactic acid energy pathway/anaerobic glycolysis can produce 2/4 per glucose molecule.
4. ATP-PC system produces one ATP
1(a)(ii) Max of 5 from; 1. The first stage is glycolysis 2. Glucose is broken down in the presence of glycolytic enzymes 3. Yield is 2 ATP 4. And (2) pyruvic acid 5. The pyruvic acid in the presence of oxygen is further broken
down 6. Pyruvic acid enters the mitochondria 7. Here it is broken down into acetyl -co enzyme A 8. The next stage is krebs cycle/oxaloacetic acid/this reacts to
produce citric acid 9. Positive hydrogen ions are produced in the krebs cycle 10. The cycle creates sufficient energy to produce 2 additional
ATPs 11. The hydrogen ions are transported to the electron transport
chain/NADH/FADH 12. Electron transport/transfer chain/system (no mark for
ETC/ETS) 13. ETC yields a further 32/34 additional ATPs 14. 36/38 ATPS are made in total 15. Fat metabolism Annotated diagrams are acceptable
1(b) 1. Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC) 2. Fast component / Alactacid component 3. Heart rate and respiration levels remain elevated to return
body to homeostasis 4. Replenish Phosphate stores (creatine phosphate/PC or CP) 5. Slow component / lactic acid component 6. Removal of Lactic Acid 7. 65% -70% oxidised to CO2 and water* 8. 20% converted to glycogen* 9. 10% converted to protein* 10. 5% converted to glucose* 11. Glycogen replenishment 12. Cool down / Stretching/ice baths 13. Reload myoglobin – oxy-myoglobin 14. hormone /enzyme levels returning to normal 15. reduction of body temperature 16. Protein used to repair muscle damage *-or similar figures Time taken for each phase does not score marks as question asks
1(c) 1. Speed up recovery 2. Be able to train more frequently 3. Increase/maintain flexibility 4. Remove any lactate build up / lactate - pyruvic acid / waste
products 5. Repayment of EPOC 6. Prevent blood pooling / aid the muscle pump / venous return 7. Assist in reducing DOMS / less pain 8. Return body / heart rate / respiratory rates to pre exercise
levels/homeostasis 9. Reduce muscle temperatures 10. Replenish ATP / CP / Glycogen stores.
1(d)(i) 1. Delayed onset of muscular soreness/muscular pain 24-48 hours after performance.
Causes: (submax 2) Based on current evidence, it appears that; 2. DOMS is due to tissue injury caused by excessive mechanical
forces being applied to the muscle and connective tissue 3. May occur because of structural damage within muscle
membranes /healing of damaged fibres 4. Often the result of eccentric work 5. Changes in the range of movement 6. Changing training methods/new exercises/range of motion 7. Increases in intensity 8. Poor preparation or warm up can contribute Effects: (submax 2) 9. The breakdown of muscle proteins causes an inflammatory
response 10. This is created as fluid shifts from blood plasma to damaged
tissues. 11. Local pain receptors are then stimulated by this excess
fluid/pain 12. An adequate cool down can reduce the effects Cannot score all four from one subsection (causes or effects)
1(d)(ii) Max of two for strategies or physiological benefits. Strategy – appropriate warm up PB – muscle becomes more compliant when it’s warm, reducing risk of injury
(Total 25 marks)
Strategy 1. Apply progression to avoid sudden / rapid increases in intensity/avoid eccentric contractions
2. Less likely to experience myofibril damage / trauma.
Strategy 3. Utilise cross training Physiological benefit
4. Provides a variety of training positions / range of movements.
Strategy 5. Aerobic training Physiological benefit
6. Aerobic training increases capillarisation within the muscle, which allows greater and faster saturation of blood, carrying oxygen and nutrients
Strategy 7. Undergo an active cool down Physiological benefit
8. Speeds up recovery allowing the period of DOMS to be shorter/increased blood flow to damaged muscles
Strategy 9. Ice baths Physiological benefit
10. Reduces the swelling within the myofibrils and encourages a faster recovery/increasing blood flow to area
Strategy 11. Anti inflammatory tablets Physiological benefit
12. Reduces the swelling within the myofibrils so removing the discomfort, however it does not speed up recovery so training will be no more frequent.
Strategy – 13. Appropriate nutrition
14. Speeds up muscle repair / reduces DOMS
Strategy 15. Appropriate warm up
16. Muscle becomes more compliant when it’s warm, reducing risk of injury, increased ROM.
1. Weight loss would be through water / fluid loss/sweating 2. Dehydration 3. If fluid loss is greater than fluid input 4. Thermo regulation / overheating 5. Climatic conditions 6. Inappropriate clothing 7. Insufficient hydration pre and during an event
Chemical energy 1. Energy that is released from a chemical
compound and created by way of chemical processes / comes from food/metabolic reaction.
2. Food groups (fats, carbohydrates, proteins ) converted into chemical energy. / stored as ATP or PC, chemical compounds/metabolic reactions eg break down of glycogen or phosphates
Kinetic Energy 3. Energy that is being utilised and is
producing movement or work
4. ATpase breaks the ATP compound and facilitates muscular contraction which is kinetic energy. (any movement example)
Potential energy 5. Energy that has the “potential” to provide
movement or work/or by virtue of position/stored energy ready to use
6. Stored ATP or PC both have the potential to provide energy when broken down/bike at top of hill/stored glycogen (carbohydrates)
2(b)(ii) 1. Bodies inability to regulate temperature = overheating 2. 2% loss of body weight = 10% loss in performance or similar
figures 3. 5% loss of body weight = 25% loss in performance or similar
figures 4. 8% loss of body weight = potentially fatal 5. reduction in physiological function e.g. VO2 max 6. Loss of electrolytes 7. Increase viscosity of the blood 8. Increased blood pressure 9. Cellular donation of water to the blood resulting in
“shutdown” of many cells 10. Leading to greater fluid loss and severe dehydration leading
to further overheating 11. Increased HR 12. Decreased SV 13. Decreased Q 14. Recovery can take several days. 15. Severe cases can lead to death. 16. Feeling dizzy/faint 17. Feeling tired/weak/fatigued / loss of coordination 18. Colouration / concentration of urine
2(c) 1. When the action potential/impulse reaches the sarcomere the motor end plates are depolarised. 2. Depolarisation causes Ca2+ to be secreted (from the “T” vessels within the cells sarcoplasm / saracoplasm reticulum) 3. Calcium binds to troponin 4. Tropomyosin complex (which blocks the binding sites) moves/changes 5. This leaves active sites exposed on the Actin. 6. The result is that the actin and myosin attach/cross bridge formed / Actin is attracted to myosin 7. Myosin cross bridge is energised by the breakdown of ATP 8. Sarcomere gets smaller/z bands change distance/actin slides over myosin 9. Myosin heads tilt towards centre of sarcomere/power stroke 10. This cross bridge is immediately broken and then recreated as long as calcium is present 11. Ratchet mechanism 12. Calcium returned to sarcoplasmic reticulum
(Total 25 marks)
TOTAL FOR SECTION A: 25 MARKS
SECTION B: Sports Mechanics and Sports Psychology
3(a) vector: has size/magnitude and direction e.g. Displacement / velocity scalar: has only size/magnitude e.g. distance / speed
3(b) 1. 1 mark for correct equation: Resultant Velocity (R) = Horizontal Velocity/ cos (angle)
Or cos (angle) = Horizontal Velocity / Resultant Velocity (R) 2. 1 mark for correct working: R= 8.00 / cos19 3. = 8.46 ms-1
No units no mark for point 3.
3(c) Sub max of 2 for: shape 1. Aerodynamic shape / Smoother / Spherical shape creates less frontal resistance / drag / air resistance therefore flight path is parabolic/near parabolic 2. e.g. shot put / javelin / Discus Sub max of 2 for: Size 3. Larger surface area creates more frontal resistance / air resistance / drag and therefore flight path is less parabolic / asymmetrical 4. Shuttle cock
Sub max of 2 for: Weight 5. heavier objects tend to have a parabolic / near parabolic flight path 6. e.g. shot put / hammer 7. lighter objects tend to be influenced by external forces such as air resistance / have a less parabolic flight path / asymmetrical 8. e.g. shuttle cock / table tennis ball
3(d) Top-Spin Appropriate labelled and explained diagram is acceptable
1. Airflow over top of ball in opposite direction of spin 2. Airflow on top of ball has low velocity therefore higher
pressure 3. Airflow below ball in same direction as spin 4. Airflow below ball has high velocity and therefore lower
pressure 5. Resultant vertical force acting downwards on ball / Magnus
effect 6. Ball will move from area of high pressure to low pressure 7. Which pushes ball down 8. So ball dips quicker 9. Therefore ball has to be hit slightly higher initially to stop it
hitting the net 10. Can be hit harder and still be more easily kept in the court.
3(e) 1. The acceleration of a body/the rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to the force causing it and takes place in the direction in which the force acts/F=ma.
2. As the ball is passed, the player applies a force in the direction towards his team mate.
3. The resultant acceleration is positive/the ball speeds up 4. As the ball travels along the ground, it begins to slow down. 5. Therefore the resultant force must be acting against the
direction of travel/friction/air resistance is slowing the ball down.
6. When his team mate stops the ball, he applies a force against the motion of the ball.
7. The force reduces the momentum of the ball, so the ball comes to rest.
(Total 25 marks)
1. 1 mark for correctly identifying lift. 2. 1 mark for correctly identifying drag in relation to throw. 3. 1 mark for correctly identifying air resistance in relation to
Direction of travel
4(a)(ii) 1. Discus must be angled to achieve lift. 2. Air flow over top of discus has high velocity = low pressure 3. Air resistance along the bottom of the discus has lower
velocity = high pressure 4. This creates a pressure difference 5. Objects move from high pressure to low pressure = lift 6. The greater the velocity of the object the greater the air flow,
the greater the lift 7. Optimum angle of attack increases lift, whilst minimising drag. 8. Minimising ‘wobble’ of the discus maintains a more
aerodynamic position which means lift force is less affected 9. Optimum angle of release will also contribute to optimising lift
4(b) Sub max of 2 1. 1st law: every body at rest, or moving with constant velocity in
a straight line, will continue in that state unless compelled to change by an external force exerted upon it.
2. There must be a force acting upon the ball because the velocity is not constant/the velocity is not constant because friction/air resistance is slowing the ball down.
3. The force applied to the ball by the player kicking it causes it to move from being at rest/the force applied by a player controlling/kicking the ball causes its motion to change.
Sub max of 2 4. 3rd law: for every action, there is an equal and opposite
reaction 5. The force exerted on the ball by the player is equal but
opposite to the force exerted on the player by the ball. 6. The force exerted by the ball on the ground is equal and
opposite to the force exerted by the ground on the ball/or equivalent
4(c) No examples – no marks explanations Max of 3 for identify Max of 3 for appropriate examples
1. Frontal axis (line from side to side across the body) / or suitable equivalent (e.g. transverse axis).
2. Forward roll/Any example that would be observable from the side/flexion/extension of the trunk/plantarflexion/dorsiflexion
3. Sagittal axis (line from front to back through the body) / or suitable equivalent (e.g. Dorsi-Ventral axis).
4. Cartwheel/any example that would be observable from the front/back/abduction/adduction/lateral flexion
5. Vertical axis (line from head to toe) / or suitable equivalent (e.g. longitudinal axis).
6. A pirouette in ice skating/spinning movements that are viewed from the top/rotation/medial/lateral rotation/pronation/supination.
4(d) 1. Maintaining optimal body position. 2. Which will minimise frontal resistance 3. Keep limbs in streamlined position/stop them sticking out
laterally/to the side too much 4. Which will minimise frontal resistance. 5. Wearing appropriate swimwear 6. Reduces fluid/skin friction 7. Shaving/removal of body hair 8. To reduce skin friction 9. Minimise parts of body moving through surface of water 10. To reduce surface friction.
(Total 25 marks)
5(a) 1. Positive reinforcement will strengthen S-R bond i.e. coach congratulates performer after they display the desired technique for a set shot in basketball.
2. Negative reinforcement will strengthen the S-R bond by either removing an unpleasant stimulus after a successful performance/action/response or removing a pleasant stimulus after an incorrect performance/action/response e.g. a basketball coach calls ‘well done’ to a performer every time they have performed the set shot correctly but says nothing after an incorrect technique.
3. Punishment can break the S-R bond e.g. a teacher gives a penalty against a team during a football lesson because a student uses foul language in an attempt to eradicate it / yellow & red cards.
4. Repetition of a response in the same situation will strengthen the S-R bond e.g. a snooker player practices clearing the colours from their spots 20 times every practice session.
5(b) An explained and labelled diagram is acceptable. 1. Performer has a drive to achieve a goal 2. Goal is blocked 3. Performer becomes frustrated 4. Frustration leads to aggression 5. If player is punished for aggression this often leads to further
frustration 6. If performer isn’t punished/gets away with aggressive act
then catharsis is experienced.
1. Need to Achieve / NAch 2. People are driven to take on challenges / like to push
themselves and aren’t concerned with failure/don’t see failure as a bad thing/ see failure as an opportunity to learn and improve.
3. Need to Avoid Failure / NAF 4. People are driven to avoid failure / aren’t concerned with
pushing themselves/want to avoid humiliation or shame due to failure.
5(d) A labelled and explained diagram is acceptable-no marks awarded for just naming ability, effort, luck, task difficulty.
1. Internal – Stable factors e.g. Ability/Physique 2. Best used after a successful performance/not suitable for use
after failure 3. Internal – Unstable factors/the box of control e.g.
Effort/Preparation 4. Suitable for use after success/suitable for use after failure 5. External – Stable factors e.g. Referee/Task Difficulty 6. Suitable for use after failure/less suitable for use after
success 7. External – Unstable factors e.g. Luck/Task Difficulty/Weather 8. Suitable for use after failure/less suitable for use after
5(e) 1. Performer feels that they are being evaluated in some context by the crowd/a crowd member
2. this feeling of evaluation causes arousal levels to increase 3. Autonomous stage of learning/expert/elite/highly confident
performers’ performance increases due to increased arousal 4. Cognitive stage of learning/beginners/low confidence
performance gets worse due to increase in arousal/anxiety 5. Attention band is narrowed by increase in arousal/good for
expert/problematic for beginner 6. chance of distraction effect 7. Status of evaluator is important
(Total 25 marks)
1. Aggression: the intent to harm outside the rules of the sport / Any behaviour directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment.
2. E.g. punching an opponent on the rugby field/threatening language on a football pitch/biting an opponent in the boxing ring.
3. Assertion: forceful behaviour or robust play within the rules of the sport with no intent to harm.
4. E.g. rucking over an offside opponent on the rugby field/a hard tackle on the football pitch/punching an opponent in the boxing ring.
Labelled diagrams are acceptable. (somatic anxiety) sub max of 3 marks
1. Somatic anxiety is the physiological response/component of anxiety/physiological symptoms/increased heart rate/increased sweating/increased muscle tension.
2. Affect on performance follows ‘inverted-U shape’/ Shape of curve follows an inverse parabola / upside down U.
3. As arousal/somatic anxiety levels increase so does performance.
4. Up to a point / up to optimum level of arousal/somatic anxiety for maximum performance.
5. After which further increases in arousal/somatic anxiety cause performance to deteriorate.
6. Should reduce once performance begins (cognitive anxiety) sub max of 3 marks
7. Cognitive anxiety is psychological/mental feelings of worry/doubt/apprehension/psychological symptoms
8. Cognitive anxiety has a negative affect on performance. 9. For low levels of Cognitive anxiety, performance remains
high. 10. For high levels of Cognitive anxiety, performance is low 11. Will remain during performance
6(c) 1. Autocratic: dictates / makes all decisions / command style / good for cognitive stage learners/beginners
2. e.g. military drill / teaching dangerous activities such as javelin
3. Democratic: asks group for ideas / contribution towards decisions by group or performer
4. e.g. asking players who wants to take a penalty in a shoot out.
5. Laissez Faire: letting them get on with it / group or performer is left to make their own decisions / high levels of trust needed
6. e.g. problem solving teaching style 7. Paternalistic: one to one / ‘mothering’ approach / ‘the arm
around the shoulder’ 8. e.g. a coach trying to raise/boost: self esteem / self efficacy
/ self confidence / attributional re-training after a failure. Marks must come from 2 styles only.
6(d) 1. Psychological Core 2. Deep inside the individual/attitudes/values/morals/the ‘real
person’ relatively stable/permanent / traits/BOD for innate 3. Typical Responses 4. Behaviours displayed from day to day/influenced by
psychological core/how we usually act 5. Role Related Behaviours 6. Interaction between the environment and the
individual/strong situational or environmental conditions will alter the individuals behaviour / may bare no resemblance to typical responses/ weak situational or environmental conditions have little effect on behaviour / typical response are displayed / situational specific behaviours / links to Self-Efficacy
6(e) 6 marks for 6 of: 1. Introduce cathartic strategies. 2. Control arousal by managing stress. 3. Teach relaxation/somatic techniques / listening to music /
breathing techniques 4. Teach selective attention / concentration / channelling
aggression. 5. Put player in non-aggressive situation / position. 6. Remove player / substitution. 7. Punish player. 8. Reinforce desired behaviour/non-aggressive / assertive 9. Show non-aggressive role models. 10. Encourage positive non-aggressive team ethos / emphasise
that aggressive play will punish whole team / let the team down.
11. Imagery / visualisation / self talk. 12. Player behaviour contract. 13. Specific goals being set with an example. 14. Seeing a sports psychologist.
(Total 25 marks)
TOTAL FOR SECTION B: 25 MARKS
SECTION C – A Synoptic Analysis of Scientific Principles
Question Number Indicative content
7 Skill Acquisition
• Variety of feedback techniques allow weaknesses to be highlighted and targeted.
• Machinery/equipment now allows recreation of sporting environment in order to make practice more specific
• Tailored equipment to maximise efficient technique Sports Psychology
• Advanced technology allows monitoring of stress levels/arousal/anxiety Exercise & Training
• Ability to re-create any training environment without having to travel
• Advanced fitness assessment methods Exercise and Energy Systems
• Precise establishment of thresholds is now possible
• Ability to target specific structural and functional adaptations
• Able to produce food supplements/nutritional supplements that control the diet
• Tailor made equipment & clothing
• Advanced materials
• Technique analysis is now instant/virtual models can now be created
• Body position/streamline/aerodynamics is now extremely advanced Socio-cultural aspects
• Media coverage is now advanced/hawkeye/ultra-motion/’pocket cam’/’stump-cam’
• Interactive viewing is moving sport into the home/more accessible In the home
(Total 25 marks)
Question Number Indicative content
•••• Mental rehearsal
•••• Stress management/arousal control/anxiety control
•••• Coping strategies
•••• Focus/changing personality
•••• Aggression control Physical
• Tapering of training schedule
• Appropriate warm up routine
• Suitable recovery period between final session and competition
• Appropriate sleep
• Replenishment of all energy stores
• Dietary manipulation to ensure readiness for competition/Hydration Technical
• Appropriate clothing for conditions of competition
• Appropriate equipment for conditions of competition
• Game plan
• Rehearsal of routines and set plays Socio-cultural aspects
• Press conferences/media interviews
• Learn/rehearse national anthem/expressions of national pride
(Total 25 marks)
Question Number Indicative content-should contain lots of UP TO DATE examples
Hypertrophy of muscle mass-steroids Increased aerobic capacity/oxygen uptake-rhEPO/Cera Sacrifice threat of long term medical probs/masking of injuries Decreased recovery time Increased ability to train longer/harder/greater intensity Increased CP/Glycogen Store
Increased aggression for contact sports Increased confidence/belief the best Desire for extrinsic rewards/commercial pressure
Edge provided by equipment may be no different to supplements/drugs – where is the boundary? Beta blocker – calming effect increased mechanical efficiency
Debate Should all sports have same punishment? Which should be legal/illegal? Where is the boundary between supplements and drugs? Altitude training vs EPO/CERA – what’s the difference? Caused by commercialisation/other? Is a drug taken for health reasons OK – eg insulin releases glycogen faster ? Are chemists one step ahead? How long should samples be kept for?
(Total 25 marks)
Question Number Indicative content
• Inherited abilities/genetics
• Structure of body more suited to sporting performance
• Females are potentially at a disadvantage to male counterparts on a physiological & structural basis
• Gene pool of family underpins potential success
• Specific scientific examples such as: muscle fibres, bone structure, somatotype, personality, aggression etc
• Access to more advanced feedback methods
• Access to qualified specialists such as: Highly qualified sports psychologists, biomechanists, phyologists, dieticians.
• Access to better training facilities, such as: � hypoxic chambers/hydrostatic pools etc � More accurate fitness assessment � More precise and reliable fitness monitoring quipment/techniques � Rehabilitation is quicker due to advance technology � Monitoring of recovery process � Controlled diet/scientifically controlled nutrition � Assessment and monitoring of structural and functional
adaptations is more accurate � Establishment of thresholds/OBLA/Lactate threshold is more
accurate � Work with specific equipment/tailor made equipment & clothing � More technologically advanced assessment and monitoring
• Media exposure
• Full time athletes as opposed to part time
• Work at sports academies/sports institutes/access to institutes of sports
• Full time, year round support from back up team.
Conclude Interaction between factors is important Such as: Inherited genetics with a sedentary lifestyle would probably not lead to being an elite athlete Access to high quality facilities without inherited genetics is also unlikely to lead to being an elite athlete.
(Total 25 marks)
TOTAL FOR SECTION C: 25 MARKS
TOTAL FOR PAPER: 75 MARKS
Mark Band Description Likely Characteristics
22 – 25
The essay synthesises information from all relevant study areas to answer the question in full. There is some in-depth analysis and balanced debate of the issues with correct use of technical language and factual information throughout, demonstrating a clear understanding of the subject matter. A range of accurate practical examples predominantly taken from relevant scientific units supports the vast majority of points.
A well structured essay with continuous prose. Predominantly accurate use of spelling, punctuation and grammar. Correct use of terminology. Clear, concise and relevant throughout.
18 – 21
The essay synthesises information from most of the relevant study areas to address the key issues raised in the question. A good understanding is demonstrated through a good use of technical language, some detailed analysis and balanced debate of key points. Factual information and accurate examples, many taken from relevant scientific units, are used in support of points made.
A well structured essay with predominantly accurate use of spelling, punctuation and grammar. Correct use of terminology. Clear and concise but may occasionally make an irrelevant comment.
14 – 17
The answer synthesises information from a limited number of study areas in an attempt to address the key issues raised in the question. A sound understanding is demonstrated through the use of some technical language, factual information and relevant practical examples, some of which are taken from scientific units. Some analysis and debate is evident, although this may be lacking both in depth and balance.
An obvious attempt to structure the essay. Fundamentally sound use of terminology. Generally clear and concise with limited inaccuracies. Satisfactory spelling, punctuation and grammar.
10 – 13
An essay that addresses a limited number of key issues but lacks the depth of synoptic rigour required. There is little evidence of analysis and technical language, although some basic understanding of the subject area is demonstrated. Relevant points may be supported by examples but only partially developed.
A basic structure is evident. Some incorrect use of terminology. There may be errors in spelling, punctuation and grammar. A number of inaccuracies.
7 – 9
An essay that fails to address many parts of the question. There is little evidence of synoptic analysis with sweeping statements that may contain some relevant information but generally remain unsupported by evidence or accurate examples and suggest limited understanding. Irrelevant points and repetition may be used to pad out the answer.
A poorly structured essay in which there may be errors in spelling, punctuation and grammar. Incorrect use of terminology. A significant proportion of material is irrelevant.
0 – 6
An essay that mostly fails to address the question and contains many inaccuracies and irrelevancies. Very little evidence of synoptic analysis with statements that demonstrate a lack of understanding.
A poorly structured essay. Incorrect spelling, punctuation and grammar. Incorrect use of terminology. Many inaccuracies.