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  • SQL Tutorial

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    SQL TUTORIAL

    Simply Easy Learning by tutorialspoint.com

    tutorialspoint.com

  • TUTORIALS POINT Simply Easy Learning

    ABOUT THE TUTORIAL

    SQL Tutorial SQL is a database computer language designed for the retrieval and management of data in relational database. SQL stands for Structured Query Language.

    This tutorial will give you quick start with SQL.

    Audience This reference has been prepared for the beginners to help them understand the basic to advanced concepts related to SQL languages.

    Prerequisites Before you start doing practice with various types of examples given in this reference, I'm making an

    assumption that you are already aware about what is database, especially RDBMS and what is a computer programming language.

    Copyright & Disclaimer Notice

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    This tutorial may contain inaccuracies or errors and tutorialspoint provides no guarantee regarding the accuracy of the site or its contents including this tutorial. If you discover that the tutorialspoint.com site or this tutorial content contains some errors, please contact us at [email protected]

  • TUTORIALS POINT Simply Easy Learning

    Table of Content SQL Tutorial ............................................................................. 2 Audience .................................................................................. 2 Prerequisites ............................................................................ 2 Copyright & Disclaimer Notice .................................................. 2 SQL Overview ........................................................................ 15

    What is SQL? ........................................................................................... 15

    Why SQL? ................................................................................................ 15

    History: ..................................................................................................... 16

    SQL Process: ........................................................................................... 16

    SQL Commands: ...................................................................................... 17

    DDL - Data Definition Language: ............................................................. 17

    DML - Data Manipulation Language: ........................................................ 17

    DCL - Data Control Language: ................................................................. 17

    DQL - Data Query Language: .................................................................. 17

    SQL RDBMS Concepts .......................................................... 18 What is field? ............................................................................................ 19

    What is record, or row? ............................................................................ 19

    What is column? ....................................................................................... 19

    What is NULL value?................................................................................ 19

    SQL Constraints: ...................................................................................... 20

    NOT NULL Constraint: ............................................................................. 20

    DEFAULT Constraint:............................................................................... 21

    Example: .................................................................................................. 21

    Drop Default Constraint: ........................................................................... 21

    UNIQUE Constraint: ................................................................................. 21

    Example: .................................................................................................. 21

    DROP a UNIQUE Constraint: ................................................................... 22

    PRIMARY Key: ......................................................................................... 22

    Create Primary Key: ................................................................................. 22

    Delete Primary Key: ................................................................................. 23

    FOREIGN Key: ......................................................................................... 24

    Example: .................................................................................................. 24

    DROP a FOREIGN KEY Constraint: ........................................................ 25

    CHECK Constraint: .................................................................................. 25

    Example: .................................................................................................. 25

    DROP a CHECK Constraint: .................................................................... 25

    INDEX: ..................................................................................................... 26

  • TUTORIALS POINT Simply Easy Learning

    Example: .................................................................................................. 26

    DROP a INDEX Constraint: ...................................................................... 26

    Data Integrity: ........................................................................................... 26

    Database Normalization ........................................................................... 27

    Third Rule of 1NF: .................................................................................... 29

    SQL RDBMS Databases ........................................................ 32 MySQL ..................................................................................................... 32

    History: ..................................................................................................... 32

    Features: .................................................................................................. 33

    MS SQL Server ........................................................................................ 33

    History: ..................................................................................................... 33

    Features: .................................................................................................. 34

    ORACLE .................................................................................................. 34

    History: ..................................................................................................... 34

    Features: .................................................................................................. 35

    MS- ACCESS ........................................................................................... 36

    Features: .................................................................................................. 36

    SQL Syntax ............................................................................ 37

    SQL SELECT Statement: ......................................................................... 37

    SQL DISTINCT Clause: ........................................................................... 37

    SQL WHERE Clause:............................................................................... 37

    SQL AND/OR Clause: .............................................................................. 37

    SQL IN Clause: ........................................................................................ 38

    SQL BETWEEN Clause: .......................................................................... 38

    SQL Like Clause: ..................................................................................... 38

    SQL ORDER BY Clause: ......................................................................... 38

    SQL GROUP BY Clause: ......................................................................... 38

    SQL COUNT Clause: ............................................................................... 38

    SQL HAVING Clause: .............................................................................. 38

    SQL CREATE TABLE Statement: ............................................................ 38

    SQL DROP TABLE Statement: ................................................................ 39

    SQL CREATE INDEX Statement: ............................................................ 39

    SQL DROP INDEX Statement: ................................................................ 39

    SQL DESC Statement: ............................................................................. 39

    SQL TRUNCATE TABLE Statement: ....................................................... 39

    SQL ALTER TABLE Statement: ............................................................... 39

    SQL ALTER TABLE Statement (Rename): .............................................. 39

    SQL INSERT INTO Statement: ................................................................ 39

    SQL UPDATE Statement: ........................................................................ 39

  • TUTORIALS POINT Simply Easy Learning

    SQL DELETE Statement: .......................