A small linux presentation which may help beginner to develop interest towards linux usage in daily life.
- 1. Linux for Lab By Pradeep Shankhwar
2. Presentation layout History Why Linux Role of Linux Linux internal Adoption and popularity Day to day Usage Conclusion 3. Before LinuxBefore Linux In 80s, Microsofts DOS was the dominated OS for PC Apple MAC was better, but expensive UNIX was much better, very expensive. Only for minicomputer for commercial applications Reliable, multiuser & multi-programming env. People were looking for a UNIX based system, which should be cheaper and can run on PC Both DOS, MAC and UNIX were proprietary, i.e., the source code of their kernel is protected No modification is possible without paying high license fees 4. History 5. Developed in 1991 by a University of Finland student Linus Torvalds. Basically a kernel, it was combined with the various software and compilers from GNU Project to form an OS, called GNU/Linux Linux is a full-fledged OS available in the form of various Linux Distributions RedHat, Fedora, SuSE, Ubuntu, Debian are examples of Linux distros Linux is supported by big names as IBM, Google, Sun, Novell, Oracle, HP, Dell, and many more What is Linux? 6. History Wrote the GNU manifesto in 1985 outlining philosophy Software that is free means more than free of charge "It means that much wasteful duplication of system programming effort will be avoided. This effort can go instead into advancing the state of the art." By early 1990s many of the GNU OS utilities were complete Meanwhile.... A famous professor Andrew Tanenbaum developed Minix, a simplified version of UNIX that runs on PC Minix is for class teaching only. No intention for commercial use Linus Torvalds started work on the Linux Kernel First version released in 1991 Changes Linux to GPL licence in 1992 Combined with GNU to make an OS 7. GNU projectGNU project Established in 1984 by Richard Stallman, who believes that software should be free from restrictions against copying or modification in order to make better and efficient computer programs GNU is a recursive acronym for GNU's Not Unix Aim at developing a complete Unix-like operating system which is free for copying and modification Companies make their money by maintaining and distributing the software, e.g. optimally packaging the software with different tools (Redhat, Slackware, Mandrake, SuSE, etc) Stallman built the first free GNU C Compiler in 1991. But still, an OS was yet to be developed 8. Why Linux 9. Free, Libre, Open Source Software (FLOSS) What can you do? Freedom to use Freedom to examine Freedom to redistribute Freedom to modify What can't you do? Deny these freedoms to anyone else 10. Linux is free and always will be as compared to the very costly Windows and Mac OSX Using pirated Windows is a bad thing Linux is Free 11. Security has always been the number one priority with Linux Linux has a robust security system Least affected platform, Malware developer are negligible compared to problem fixture. Forget about viruses. 12. Have you ever lost your precious work because Windows crashed? Have you ever gotten the "blue screen of death" or error messages telling you that the computer needs to be shut down for obscure reasons? Crashes or freezes are not prevalent in Linux Is your system unstable ? 13. When the system has installed, why would you still need to install stuff ? Common software such as music player, web browser, video player, image editor, PDF reader, chat messenger, office apps Linux comes with software built-in 14. Just like Windows Update tool, Linux has a more better alternative to it to update all your system in a few clicks Updating in a single click 15. As Linux is impervious to viruses, trojans, spywares, which are the main reasons to slow down the PC, systems based on it do not get slower Linux consumes lesser system resources Linux does not get slow 16. If you already know what fragmentation is, and are already used to defragmenting your disk every month or so, here is the short version : Linux doesn't need defragmenting. Whereas Windows-based system get fragmented frequently and need attention in this regard. Linux does not need defragmentation 17. Linux runs perfectly well on older hardware, on which Windows XP would probably even refuse to install, or let you wait 20 seconds after each click Windows requires more and more hardware power as its version number increases (95, 98, 2000, Me, XP, etc.). So if you want to keep running Windows, you need to constantly buy new hardware Linux can run on older hardware 18. With Linux, everything is much simpler. Linux has what is called a "package manager": each piece of software is contained in its own "package". If you need some new software, just open the package manager, type a few keywords, choose which software you want to install and press "Apply" or "OK". Or you can just browse existing software (that's a lot of choice!) in categories. Add new software in a few clicks 19. Due to the various options available in Linux, like a lot of DEs, themes, Window Managers, and the modular nature of DEs, Linux is very customizable The extent of customizability is clearly implied by the fact that some people have gone as far as to customize their Linux OS to make them look and feel like Mac OSX and Windows Linux is extremely customizable 20. No threat of viruses Linux systems are extremely stable Linux is Free Linux comes with most of the required software pre-installed Update all your software with minimum fuss Linux never gets slow Linux does not need defragmentation Linux can even run on oldest hardware Adding more software is a matter of a few clicks Most Windows-only apps have either their native version or alternatives for Linux With Linux, you get the highest degree of possible customizability Why Linux: Summary 21. 21 Roles of Linux Desktop Server Linux for application developer & embedded system developer 22. Can be controlled through command-line (CLI) or Graphical User Interface (GUI) GUI run through Desktop Environments (DE) KDE, GNOME, Xfce, E17 are popular DEs The GUI interface is easy-to-use and much like that of Windows and Mac OSX The CLI is similar to that of UNIX/BSD Linux User InterfaceLinux User Interface 23. 23 Linux on the Desktop First, there has been a historical lack of desktop productivity applications available for Linux. The second issue is that the average user tends to find Linux somewhat intimidating. 24. Generic use of Linux Document preparation Presentation Word document Excel worksheet PDF document preparation Latex (complete report preparation tool) Inbuilt PDF viewing tools kpdf, gpdf etc Diagram preparation and storing them in multiple formats (fig, dia tools) Text file preparing and editing Printing (network/standalone) Web browsing There is single interface to call & exit any tools---- i.e. terminal 25. It is possible to install/run Windows software on Linux Wine helps run a wide range of Windows applications Cedega helps run huge number of Windows games flawlessly Cygwin helps to run linux applications in windows Running Windows software on Linux and vice versa 26. Many native games are available, both 3D and 2D Wine and Cedega help run Windows-only games Popular games for Linux are: Quake, Unreal Tournament, Counter Strike, Doom, Cube, CodeRED, Wesnoth, OpenArena, SuperTux, Frozen Bubble, Medal of Honor, and many more. Gaming on Linux 27. 27 Linux as a Server.. Web Server Linux is also widely deployed as a Web server. The most popular Web service currently used on Linux is the Apache Web server. E-Mail Server There are a variety of different e-mail services available for Linux that can turn your system into an enterprise-class e- mail server. 28. Professional use of Linux Embedded system development Texas instrument platform All ARM based microcontroller Intel based platform PowerPC, ARM etc Desktop applications (equivalent to windows) Possible available Linux Kernels RT Linux Montavista Linux ucLinux etc. VLSI tools 29. Modern languages are cross-platform, like Python, Ruby, Perl, Java Most Linux distros support these languages and have their runtimes pre- installed GTK+ and Qt are widely used to design applications for Linux IDEs like NetBeans, Anjuta, KDevelop, MonoDevelop, Eclipse are available for Linux too Programming in Linux 30. How to learn commands Primary man(manual) pages. man - shows all information about the command --help - shows the available options for that command Secondary Books and Internet 31. Important commands File handling mkdir, ls, dir, cd, pwd, cp, rm, mv, find [OPTION] [path] [pattern], history, locate Text processing Cat file1.txt file2.txt Grep I apple sample.txt Wc L xyz.txt for number of new lines, words, bytes Sort lines of text file File permission & ownership Chmod, chown, su, passwd, who etc. 32. Important commands Process management Ps, kill, top Archival tar --cvf /home/archive.tar /home/original zip [OPTION] DEST SOURCE unzip original.zip Network related ssh -X [email protected] scp [options] [[user]@host1:file1] [[user]@host2:file2] 33. Important commands File system mount /dev/sda5 /media/target umount /media/target du estimate file space usage df report filesystem disk space usage quota display disk usage and limits reboot reboot the system Shutdown h now 34. Linux ShellLinux Shell Shell interprets the command and request service from kernel Similar to DOS but DOS has only one set of interface while Linux can select different shell Bourne Again shell (Bash), TC shell (Tcsh), Z shell (Zsh) Kernel Bash, Tcsh, Zsh ls pwd whoami Different shell has similar but different functionality Bash is the default for Linux Graphical user interface of Linux is in fact an application program work o