- 1.GROUP MEMBERS :- 07. ANKITA 14. ASHUTOSH 18. SHAMIKSHA 19. LAXMAN
2. JAVA BYTECODE Byte codes are the machine language of the Java virtual machine. When a JVM loads a class file, it gets one stream of byte codes for each method in the class. The byte codes streams are stored in the method area of the JVM. 3. Byte code, also known as p-code (portable code), is a form of instruction set designed for efficient execution by a software interpreter. A method's byte code stream is a sequence of instructions for the Java virtual machine. Each instruction consists of a one-byte op code followed by zero or more operands. The op code indicates the action to take. If more information is required before the JVM can take the action, that information is encoded into one or more operands that immediately follow the opcode. 4. Each type of opcode has a mnemonic. In the typical assembly language style, streams of Java bytecodes can be represented by their mnemonics followed by any operand values. For example, the following stream of bytecodes can be disassembled into mnemonics: // Bytecode stream: 03 3b 84 00 01 1a 05 68 3b a7 ff f9 Disassembly: iconst_0 // 03 istore_0 // 3b iinc 0, 1 // 84 00 01 iload_0 // 1a iconst_2 // 05 imul // 68 istore_0 // 3b goto -7 // a7 ff f9 5. The seven primitive types are listed in the following table: TYPE DFEFINITION byte one-byte signed two's complement integer. short two-byte signed two's complement integer. int 4-byte signed two's complement integer. long 8-byte signed two's complement integer. float 4-byte IEEE 754 single- precision float. double 8-byte IEEE 754 double- precision float. 6. EXAMPLES ActionScript executes in the ActionScript Virtual Machine (AVM), which is part of Flash Player and AIR. Adobe Flash objects. Byte Code Engineering Library. C to Java Virtual Machine compilers. Icon and Unicon programming languages Infocom used the Z-machine to make its software applications more portable. 7. What is in a .class file? Java class file is a file (with the .class extension) containing a Java byte code which can be executed on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Java class file is produced by Java compiler from Java programming language source files (.java files) containing Java classes. If a source file has more than one class, each class is compiled into a separate class file In Short, Create source file Compile source file into .class file Run the .class file 8. 8 The Interpreter's are sometimes referred to as the Java Virtual Machines The output of the compiler is .class file 9. Stack-based virtual machine Small instruction set: 202 instructions (all are 1 byte opcode + operands) Intel x86: ~280 instructions (1 to 17 bytes long!) Every Java class file begins with magic number 3405691582 = 0xCAFEBABE JVM executes the step-by-step instructions given to it from the bytecode JVM is specific to each computer architecture (Linux JVM, Windows JVM, Mac JVM). Java Byte code 10. Example : 1 + 2 1 2 + PUSH 1 PUSH 2 ADD 3 + 1 2 11. 1 + 2 1 2 + ICONST_1 ICONST_2 IADD 3 + 1 2 12. JAVA JAVAP TOOL The javap tool disassembles compiled Java files and prints out a representation of the Java program. This may be helpful when the original source code is no longer available on a system. Link to refer about javap !!! http://docs.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/to ols/windows/javap.html 13. Execution Environment Oracle's Java execution environment is termed the Java Runtime Environment, or JRE. The execution environment section is used to maintain the operations of the stack itself. It is pointed to by the frame register. The JVM runtime executes .class or .jar files, emulating the JVM instruction set by interpreting it or using a just-in- time compiler (JIT) such as Oracle's HotSpot. 14. Runtime Data Areas 15. PC register: PC register has the address of a JVM instruction being executed now. JVM stack: One JVM stack exists for one thread, and is created when the thread starts. It is a stack that saves the struct (Stack Frame). 16. Native method stack: A stack for native code written in a language other than Java. Method area: It stores runtime constant pool, field and method information, static variable, and method byte code for each of the classes and interfaces read by the JVM. Runtime constant pool: This area is included in the method area; however, it plays the most core role in JVM operation. Therefore, the JVM specification separately describes its importance. As well as the constant of each class and interface, it contains all references for methods and fields. Heap: A space that stores instances or objects, and is a target of garbage collection. 17. Runtime data areas shared among all threads. 18. Runtime data areas exclusive to each thread. 19. Execution Engine The bytecode that is assigned to the runtime data areas in the JVM via class loader is executed by the execution engine. The execution engine reads the Java Bytecode in the unit of instruction. The execution engine gets one OpCode and execute task with the Operand, and then executes the next OpCode. 20. Features of JVM Stack-based virtual machine: The most popular computer architectures such as Intel x86 Architecture and ARM Architecture run based on a register. Symbolic reference: All types (class and interface) except for primitive data types are referred to through symbolic reference, instead of through explicit memory address-based reference. Garbage collection: A class instance is explicitly created by the user code 21. Guarantees platform independence by clearly defining the primitive data type: A traditional language such as C/C++ has different int type size according to platform. Network byte order: The Java class file uses the network byte order. 22. What is VM ? The purpose of VM is to abstract the details of the hardware or the operating system and to let a program execute as same way on any operating system. Can think VM as type of computer. It is not new idea The JVM is most widely used machine Source code VM compiler VM code VM interpreter Executable code 23. Java code(.java) Javac compiler Byte code (.class) Windows JVM Linux JVM Mac JVM Windows Linu x Mac What is VM as it applies to JAVA? A very large installed base, this computer is efficient, dynamic and net aware. A JVM facilitates Write- Once, Run-Run Anywhere (WORA) It is not new idea The JVM is most widely used machine 24. JVM Architecture 25. JVM has various sub components internally. 1. Class loader sub system: JVM's class loader sub system performs 3 tasks a. It loads .class file into memory. b. It verifies byte code instructions. c. It allots memory required for the program. 2. Run time data area: This is the memory resource used by JVM and it is divided into 5 part a. Method area: Method area stores class code and method code. b. Heap: Objects are created on heap. c. Java stacks: Java stacks are the places where the Java methods are executed. A Java stack contains frames. On each frame, a separate method is executed. d. Program counter registers: The program counter registers store memory address of the instruction to be executed by the micro processor. e. Native method stacks: The native method stacks are places where native methods (for example, C language programs) are executed. Native method is a function, which is written in another language other than Java. 26. 3. Native method interface: Native method interface is a program that connects native methods libraries (C header files) with JVM for executing native methods. 4. Native method library: holds the native libraries information. 5. Execution engine: Execution engine contains interpreter and JIT compiler, which covert byte code into machine code. JVM uses optimization technique to decide which part to be interpreted and which part to be used with JIT compiler.