The History And Development Of Editing

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  1. 1. Presentation By Ahmed . S. Ellahi Assessor Mike Hambi
  2. 2. The Role Of The Editor Summary : The role of the editor is to work with the raw footage, selecting shots, and film combing them into sequences to create a finished motion picture. An editor must work to create effective film transitions , which are techniques used to move from one shot to the next to convey a tone or mood, suggest the passage of time, or separate parts of the story. Film editing is often referred to as the invisible art the editor is like a magician or illusionist . The editors skill leaves the viewer so engaged that he or she is not even aware of the editors work. The film editors must also know how to tell a story. Editor selects sounds and images from all the film that has been shot and arrange them to create the final version of the film. They also plan how one shot will be transitioned to the next. He or she works creatively with segments of video shoots and footage, dialogue, music, pacing, and actors performances to reconstruct and even recreate, these segments or clips to produce a complete film. The image in the centre (right) is a editor at work using modern day technology and software. ( Picture from Google for education use only). (Above) Images of modern day editing suite. (Above) An early 1920s editing work bench.
  3. 3. Here is a more detailed job role list of an editor Read the shooting script and meet with the director to understand his vision for the film. Make visits to the locations during filming to gain a sense of how the shooting is progressing. Go through footage, once shooting is done, and select scenes based on their dramatic and entertainment value and contribution to story continuity. The editor is looking for the best combination of photography, performance, consistency and timing. Trim the segments of footage to the lengths needed for the film and assemble them into the best sequence to tell the story. Work with sound effects editors, and musical directors on sound, score and film sequences that will be added to the film. Insert music, dialogue and sound effects, using editing equipment. Review the edited film, make corrections and prepare it as a first cut, or rough cut, for the film directors and film producers to view. The first cut may take up to three months or more to assemble. Make revisions, as requested by the director and producers, and prepare the final cut for release to the film house for production. The final cut may take an additional month or longer to finish.
  4. 4. Editing Technologies Since the early 1900s film editing was introduced in the form of gathering positive film of the negative side of the strips, which were called work prints. These work prints of film were then taken and physically cut with scissors and attached together with tape , and a short while later with glue. With the invention of the splicer and threading machine editing became a bit more productive and cleaner footage was achieved. (top right) Once these film shots were satisfactorily compiled together they were made in to reels of film. All this was aided with the help of the Moviola (bottom left) or flatbed machine like the k-e-m or Steenback. The Moviola was invented in 1923 , the advantage of this device was that it allowed an editor to view footage whilst editing. The disadvantage of this method of editing was if a clip of film was damaged or defaced then more costs would be involved, thus slowing down or creating a delay in whole production time of the actual complete film. Also very minimal affects could be applied due to the level of this technology. The advantage was it created an appetite to improve on technology and work to advance in the industry. It also allowed the viewers and producers to see what potential will or might be available in the future. A early Griswold splicer this device bought simplicity to merging clips of film together. The Moviola the first ever actual editing machine invented in 1923.
  5. 5. Modern day Editing technology ( Examples) In 1997 since the time of the internet boom and computing advancements editing has bought on a hole new meaning to film production. Previously non linear editing was used, now this has been replaced by video editing software. The new editing is done digitally using software systems such as Final Cut Pro, Avid and Adobe Premier Pro. Also Sony Vegas movie editor. These editing softwares are based around the same concept, but vary in user tastes. The great advantage digital editing softwares such as Adobe or Final Cut Pro have in comparison to older film editing techniques is clips of video can easily be edited, altered and enhanced. One other feature is adding audio which can also be manipulated. Overall not only has digital editing improved in allowing quality , but also there has been a great improvement of speed through ease of use of this software.
  6. 6. Editing Techniques And Story Telling Here is a list of just some of the different types of Editing techniques used some of which are regularly used and others which are as and when required. A Cut : Is the most basic and common type of Film Transition is the cut. A cut happens when one shot instantly replaces another. It is an abrupt visual transition created in editing. Cuts are so widely used that feature movies normally count thousands of them. Cuts are essential for the effects of juxtaposition for viewers to establish meaning. Although most cuts exist simply for a technical need, the abrupt replacement of one shot by the other demands a certain interpretation from the viewer. Film cutting: Quoted by Alfred Hitchcock. Effective editing : A good edit should (1) elicit / convey appropriate emotion to add to the storytelling. (2) maintain continuity in terms of storytelling (3) use eye trace (where the viewers eye goes) appropriately to ensure the viewer is not confused, strained, or disoriented. (4) maintain 2 dimensional plane of screen and 3 dimensional space of action. Continuity editing : Is editing that creates action that flows smoothly across shots and scenes without jarring visual inconsistencies. This type of editing establishes a sense of story for the viewer. Discontinuity editing : Is a unique editing style in film that is antithetical to that of normal cinema, or Continuity editing. In a discontinuous sequence, the filmmaker will deliberately use an arrangement of shots that seem out of place or confusing relative to a traditional narrative. Russian director Kuleshov was a famous innovator in the Discontinuity editing technique. He discovered the cinemas ability to link entirely unrelated material into coherent sequences. The meaning the audience derived from it was completely invented. He termed the technique creative geography.
  7. 7. Scene Transitions : Iris Wipe is a wipe that takes the shape of a growing or shrinking circle. It has been used frequently in animated films, like in Looney Tunes or Mickey Mouse cartoons, to signify the end of the story. Image on right of ending sequence of cartoon using iris wipe. Cross-Cutting shots are those in which the Editor cuts back and forth between two or more events or actions that are taking place at the same time, but in different places. Cross-Cutting is used to build suspense or to show how different pieces of the action are related. Another term for Cross- Cutting is Parallel Editing. Again, this type of editing is a technique of continuously alternating between two or more scenes that are happening simultaneously, but in different locations. Cross- Cutting is a cornerstone of editing that works to mask abrupt changes in temporal (time) and spatial continuity, and enhance narrative. Images to the right (centre) show a sample from the film inception (2009) starring Leonardo Dicaprio.
  8. 8. The Impact Of Sound Sound editing. Sound in a film is as important to an individual who suffers from hearing loss but relies on subtitles to understand the story. Sound is a marriage between what you see and what you hear. The impact of sound can play a major role in a film, sound is a very essential ingredient to making films more understandable to the audiences and viewers, with the help of varying audio levels and, the aid of diegetic or non- diegetic sound, audiences get a more enhanced response to motion picture in a certain way. A good example would be a film viewed with no audio or sound much like a silent film from early years. It would show what different affect the film would have on the viewer. Even though the viewer may understand certain scenes of the film it would leave the viewer disheartened, or confused as to what is really happening in the scene or what it really means. I have added this link of Caoimhe Doyle a Foley artist who talks about the different types of sound and the reasons why sometimes different sound effects are essential to films. And also how different genres of film can have separate effects on sound. . A lot of modern digital softwares contain their own sound editing softwares such as Sony Vegas Platinum, Magix Movie edit Pro, and several other softwares. These allow you to edit sound and dialogue on the same software. On the right is an image of some audio editing software in action.
  9. 9. Foley artsists help the editing process by recreating ambient sounds . These sound effects which are created are very essential to a film maker who would otherwise find it difficult to record in reality, such as the image on the (right) of a persons bone breaking. It would be a sound which would have to be created and is very simply done , using a piece of dry celery as shown in the video link above. Dialogue may be also difficult to record on set due to outside disturbances like planes flying overhead or birds flying over . Sound can also play a major factor in regards to the pace of fil