Interactive stories and serious games for social interaction

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  • 1. Interactive Storiesand Serious Gamesfor Social InteractionJeroen Linssen | PhD studentHuman Media InteractionUniversity of Twente

2. Part 1: The VST The Virtual Storyteller: Story generation Interactive stories In-character and out-of-characterOutlinePart 2: Serious games Training through gaming Socially intelligent agents Meta-techniques2/30 3. PART 1The Virtual Storyteller3/30 4. Story generation through simulation [] Emergent narrative in a multi-agent system From simulation for story generation to interactive storiesThe Virtual Storyteller4/30 5. Story emerges from characters actions Inspiration: improvisational theatre Offers & acceptsEmergent narrative5/30 6. Plot Agent: assigns roles World Agent: objective world knowledge Character Agents Virtual characters Plan towards their own goalsVSTs agents6/30 7. Fabula7/30 8. Actor vs. character distinction Out-of-character techniquesCharacter ActorI am a typicalteenagerIn-character &out-of-characterWhatever,just leaveme alone!8/30 9. Pirate domainScurvy wants to get the piece of cheese.Scurvy assumes the cheese is in thegalley.Scurvy walks to the cargo hold via thedoor.Scurvy walks to the gun deck via theladder.Scurvy opens the door to the galley.Scurvy can see the cheese is not in thegalley.OMalley sees Scurvy.OMalley wants to catch Scurvy.OMalley walks to the gun deck via thedoor.Princess domainOnce upon a time, there was abeautiful princess calledAmalia. A knight from a farway country was in love withher and she was in love with ayoung prince. The knight wasjealous, so he wished tokidnap her. Because theprincess lived in a large castle,he went to the castle. He triedto open the heavy gate. Theknight climbed into a hightree. [..]Generated stories9/30 10. Authoring is an iterative process Examples of mis-generated stories: A pirate wants to go to an island... A pirate wants to send someone to hell... Authoring: specifying the story worldAuthoring for emergence10/30 11. Little Red Riding Hood [] Co-creation Discovering the story worldThe Interactive Storyteller11/30 12. PART 2Serious games12/30 13. Stories with morals: they tell something Obey the gods, or woe will befall you Respect your elders Think about them, reflect on the events Narrative is read approximately twice as fast asinformational text but remembered twice as well. (Graesser etal., 2002)Serious stories?13/30 14. All games revolve around learning. (Erik van der Spek) Super Mario Bros. World 1-1Games and learning14/30 15. Domain: law enforcement (interviews, street intervention) Police officers need to resolve conflicts peacefully Improve social awarenessSerious games forsocial awareness15/30 16. Interaction with virtual characters Accessible Focus not on performing,but experiencing Clear goals, clear feedbackTraining through gaming16/30 17. Focus on learning goals Insight in procedure Improving awareness Interaction in a system Dont simulate, exaggerate Playful interaction Abstract from real world Convey knowledge using metaphorsSerious game design17/30 18. Board gameby T-Xchange Police vs.juveniles Police traineesact as juveniles EvokesdiscussionExample: Samen Hangend(Sequacious)18/30 19. Interaction with virtual agents Let agents use theories on social interaction Again, an emergent narrativeLOITER: Interaction withvirtual characters19/30 20. Accessible, 2D Immersive, multi-modalInterfaces20/30 21. Analysed behaviour (corpus) Semantic frame Which factors play an importantrole? From practice to theoryModelling social interaction21/30 22. Stance: the interpersonal circumplex(Leary, 1957) Face (Goffman, 1955) Need for autonomy Need for approval Rapport: feeling in sync with someone (Tickle-Degnen & Rosenthal,1992) From theory to practiceSocial interactionDominanceAffectionAggressive LeadingIntroverted Following22/30 23. Learning goals based on theories from social psychology Examples: recognise stance and adopt a stance Feedback Explainable AI Supports the learning goalsLearning goals and feedback23/30 24. Game Learning Play cycle, learning cycle (Koops & Hoevenaar, 2012) Experiencing, then reflecting At which moments?Lemniscate model24/30 25. (Nordic) live action role play Meta-technique: communicatingout-of-character information Examples: inner monologue,flashback/forwardsMeta-techniques25/30 26. Complexity levels of interaction/learning goals Between interactions, feedback through discussionbetween character and player Lemniscate model: play and reflect Use to automatically adapt next interactionMeta-technique:Act break26/30 27. Provide insight into characters minds Inspiration: thought bubblesfrom comics, games Less intrusive to story flow,still play/reflect cycleMeta-technique:Inner monologue27/30 28. How much do these meta-techniques contribute tolearning? How do different interfaces influence learning? Story structure: toward emergent narrative OOC adaptation to player: adaptive difficultyLOITER: Next steps28/30 29. Take Home MessageBe metaGet inspired by other fieldsDont take everything too seriously29/30 30. Thanks Thanks forlistening!listening!Lets Lets discuss...mail j.m.linssen@utwente.nlblog Storyteller virtualstoryteller.infocommit-nl.nlAnd they learned happily ever after...30/30 31. Theune, M., Linssen, J.M., & Alofs, T. (2013). Acting, Playing or Talking about theStory: Childrens Communication during Interactive Digital Storytelling. In Proceedings ofthe International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling. Bruijnes, M., Linssen, J.M., op den Akker, H.J.A., Theune, M., Wapperom, S., Broekema,C., & Heylen, D.K.J. (2014). Social Behaviour in Police Interviews: Relating Data toTheories, in Poggi, I., Vincze, L., & Vinciarelli, A. (eds.) Conflict and Negotiation: SocialResearch and Machine Intelligence, Springer, Berlin. Linssen, J.M., Theune, M., & de Groot, T.F. (2013). What Is at Play? Meta-techniques inSerious Games and Their Effects on Social Believability and Learning. In Proceedings of theSocial Believability in Games Workshop. Linssen, J.M., de Groot, T.F., & Theune, M. (In press). Beyond Simulations: Serious Gamesfor Training Interpersonal Skills in Law Enforcement. In Proceedings of the InternationalConference of the European Social Simulation Association. van Oostendorp, H., van der Spek, E.D., & Linssen, J.M. (2014). Adapting the ComplexityLevel of a Serious Game to the Proficiency of Players. EAI Endorsed Transactions onSerious Games, 14(2).Publications31/30 32. Belarbi, S., Bergstrm, K., Ebbehj, S. L., Hansen, E. E., Fatland, E.,Giver, O. P., Westlund, A. (2010). Nordic larp. (J. Stenros & M.Montola, Eds.). Swartjes, I. M. T. (2010). Whose story is it anyway? How improvinforms agency and authorship of emergent narrative. Centre forTelematics and Information Technology University of Twente., comic 1089 Graesser, A.C., Olde, B., and Klettke, B. (2002). How does the mindconstruct and represent stories? In M.C. Green, J.J. Strange & T.C.Brock (Eds.), Narrative Impact: Social and Cognitive Foundations(231-263). Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Koops, M., & Hoevenaar, M. (2012). Conceptual Change During aSerious Game: Using a Lemniscate Model to Compare Strategies in aPhysics Game. Simulation & Gaming, 44(4), 544561.References32/30 33. Human Media Interaction: T-Xchange: re-lion: 34. Marit Theune, coordinator (2002 now) Hans ten Brinke, perceptions and assumptions (2014) Thijs Alofs, Interactive Storyteller (2012) Ivo Swartjes, lead designer (2006 2010) Pjotter Tommassen, plot control (2009) Nanda Slabbers, language generation (2006)Virtual Storyteller credits34/30