THE BASS OR SULCUS CLEANING METHOD.MODIFIED BASS TECHNIQUE.MODIFIED STILLMANN’S TECHNIQUE.FONES OR CIRCULAR OR SCRUB METHOD.VERTICAL OR LEONARD’S METHOD.CHARTER’S METHOD.SCRUB BRUSH METHOD.THE ROLL TECHNIQUE.PHYSIOLOGIC OR SMITH METHOD
BASS OR SULCUS CLEANING METHOD
Mostly accepted and effective method for the removal of dental
plaque present adjacent to and underneath the gingival margin.
INDICATIONS Adaptable for:I. interproximal areasII. cervical areas beneath the height of contour of
enamel III. exposed root surfaces.
TECHNIQUE:The bristles are placed at a 45 angle to the gingiva and moved in small circular motions.Strokes are repeated around 20 times,3 teeth at a time. On the lingual aspect of the anterior teeth,the brush is pressed into the gingival sulci and proximal surfaces at a 45 angle.The britles are then activated.Occlusal surfaces are cleaned by pressing the bristles firmly and then activating the bristles.
ADVANTAGE: Effective method for removing plaque. Provides good gingival stimulation.
DISADVANTAGE: cause injury to the gingival margin. Time consuming.
MODIFIED BASS TECHNIQUE Differs from bass technique in that it has sweeping
motion from cervical to incisal or occlusal surface.
INDICATION: As a routine oral hygiene measure intrasulcular
excellent sulcus cleaning.good inter proximal and gingival cleaning.good gingival stimulation
MODIFIED STILLMAN’S TECHNIQUE
INDICATION: dental plaque removal cleaning tooth surfaces and gingival massage
DISADVANTAGES time consuming damage epithelial attachment.
THE STILLMAN’S METHOD
Like the Bass Method the filaments are placed at a 45° angle to the tooth. Unlike the Bass Method the filaments are placed half in the sulcus and half on the gingiva.The same stroke is used as the Bass.
INDICATIONS:persons having :I. missing papilla and exposed root
surfaces.II. FPD and orthodontic appliances.III. periodontal surgery.IV. interproximal gingival recession.
THE CHARTER’S METHOD
Position the filaments toward the chewing surface of the toothPlace the sides of the filaments against the enamel and angle them at a 45° to the tooth. Vibrate the filaments gently but firmly, keeping the filaments against the tooth. Reposition on the next set of teeth.
ADVANTAGE:Massage and stimulation of gingiva.
DISADVANTAGES :Poor removal of subgingival bacterial accumulations.Limited brush placement.Requirements in digital dexterity are high.
The Roll MethodDirect the filaments toward the root of the tooth.Place side of the brush on the gingiva and have the plastic part of the brush even with the tooth. When the plastic portion is even with the tooth press the filaments against the gingiva and roll the brush over the teeth. The wrist is turned slightly and the filaments follow the contours of the teeth.
Vertical stroke is usedMaxillary and mandibular teeth are brushed separately.Bristles of brush are placed at 90° to the facial surface of teeth.Brush vigorously without great pressure mostly up and down strokes
ADVANTAGE most convenient and effective for
small children with deciduous teeth
DISADVANTAGES interdental space of permanent
teeth of adult are not properly cleaned.
Based on the principle that toothbrush should follow the physiologic pathway that is followed by the food when it traverses over the tissue during mastication
Bristles are pointed incisally or occlusally and then moved along and over the tooth surface and gingiva.
ADVANTAGE natural self cleansing mechanism supragingival cleaning is good
DISADVANTAGE interdental spaces and sulcular
areas of teeth are not properly cleaned
INDICATION Young children Physically or emotionally
handicapped individuals Patients who lack dexterity
METHOD: Place the
toothbrush on a set of teeth, then activate the bristle by slightly pressing them over the teeth.
Give circular motion 4 -5 times on each set of the teeth
Move on to the next set of teeth
ADVANTAGE: easy to learn shorter time required
DISADVANTAGE: possible trauma to gingiva interdental areas not properly