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Vasodilators & The Treatment of Angina Pectoris By M.H.Farjoo M.D. , Ph.D. Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science

Vasodilators & the treatment of angina pectoris

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Page 1: Vasodilators & the treatment of angina pectoris

Vasodilators &

The Treatment of Angina Pectoris

By

M.H.Farjoo M.D. , Ph.D.Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science

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Vasodilators & The Treatment of Angina Pectoris

Introduction Classification of Angina Oxygen Demand Determinants Vasodilators in Angina Drugs Acting on Angina

Nitrates & Nitrites Ca2+ Channel Blockers β – Blockers Newer Antianginal Drugs

Practical Issues Drug Pictures

M.H.Farjoo

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Introduction

Angina pectoris occurs when coronary blood flow is inadequate to supply the oxygen demand.

The heart's extracts 75% of the available oxygen even under conditions of no stress.

Increased myocardial demands for oxygen are met by augmenting coronary blood flow.

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Introduction Cont’d

Coronary blood flow is related to the aortic diastolic pressure and the duration of diastole.

Oxygen demand can be reduced by: Decreasing cardiac work.

Shifting myocardial metabolism to substrates that require less oxygen per unit of ATP produced.

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Oxygen Demand Determinants

Heart rate Contractility Wall stress

Intraventricular pressure Ventricular radius (volume) Wall thickness

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Oxygen Demand Determinants Cont’d

Drugs that reduce cardiac size, rate, or force reduce cardiac oxygen demand.

Thus, vasodilators, β blockers, and ca2+ blockers have benefits in angina.

A late Na+ current prolongs the ca2+ current of myocardial action potentials.

Drugs that block this Na+ current can indirectly reduce calcium influx and reduce cardiac contractile force.

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Oxygen Demand Determinants Cont’d

The heart favors fatty acids as a substrate for energy production.

Oxidation of fatty acids requires more oxygen per unit of ATP generated than oxidation of carbohydrates.

Drugs that shift metabolism toward greater use of glucose (fatty acid oxidation inhibitors) may reduce the oxygen demand.

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Classification of Angina

The most frequent cause of angina is atheromatous obstruction of the large coronary vessels (classic or atherosclerotic angina).

In classic angina, myocardial oxygen requirement increases but coronary blood flow does not increase.

Classic angina is "angina of effort.“

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Classification of Angina

Spasm of localized portions of coronary vessels, which is usually associated with underlying atheromas, can cause ischemia (angiospastic or variant or Prinzmetal's angina).

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Classification of Angina Cont’d

Episodes of angina at rest or a change in the character, frequency or duration of pain in stable angina is called “unstable angina”.

Unstable angina is caused by episodes of coronary vasospasm or platelet clots occurring in the vicinity of an atherosclerotic plaque.

Unstable angina usually heralds myocardial infarction.

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Vasodilators in Angina

↑cGMP: Nitric oxide activates soluble guanylyl cyclase. donors of nitric oxide include nitroprusside and the organic nitrates.

↓Ca2+: β blockers and Ca2+ channel blockers use this mechanism.

↑ K+ : this stabilizes membrane at resting potential. K+ channel openers, (minoxidil) act on ATP-dependent K+ channels.

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Vasodilators in Angina Cont’d

↑cAMP which increases inactivation of MLCK.

This is the mechanism of fenoldopam, a D1 agonist used in hypertensive emerencies.

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Drugs Action in Angina

The organic nitrates, (nitroglycerin) are the mainstay of therapy for the immediate relief of angina.

The calcium channel-blockers are the most effective prophylactic treatment for variant angina.

β blockers, which are not vasodilators, are also useful in prophylaxis.

Lipid-lowering drugs, especially the "statins“ are extremely important for the long-term treatment.

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Nitrates & Nitrites Bioavailability of the nitroglycerin and isosorbide

dinitrate is < 10–20%. (sublingual route is used).

sublingual nitroglycerin has a rapid onset of action (1-3 min.), and is used for the immediate treatment of angina.

Because its duration of action is short (20-30 min.), It is not suitable for maintenance therapy.

The metabolite of isosorbide dinitrate (isosorbide mononitrate) is an orally active drug with a bioavailability of 100%.

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Tolerance to Nitrates & Nitrites Tolerance may be caused by:

A decrease in tissue sulfhydryl groups

Increased generation of oxygen free radicals during nitrate therapy

Diminished availability of calcitoningene-related peptide (CGRP, a potent vasodilator).

Systemic compensation also plays a role. Initially, significant sympathetic discharge occurs and with long-acting nitrates, retention of salt and water may reverse the favorable hemodynamic changes caused by nitroglycerin.

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Tolerance to Nitrates & Nitrites

Long lasting forms of nitrates my provide the drug for 24 hours or longer.

The full hemodynamic effects do not persist for more than 6-8 hours.

The clinical efficacy of nitroglycerin in maintenance therapy is limited tolerance.

A nitrate-free period of at least 8 hr. between doses should be observed to reduce or prevent tolerance.

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Nitrates & Nitrites Cont’d

Nitroglycerin relaxes all types of smooth muscle.

It has no direct effect on cardiac or skeletal muscle.

The epicardial coronary arteries are sensitive: Concentric atheromas can prevent significant dilation.

Eccentric lesions permit relaxation on the side away from the lesion.

The sensitivity of Vascular Smooth Muscle is as follows: Veins > arteries > Arterioles and precapillary sphincters.

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Nitrates & Nitrites Cont’d

The primary result of a dose of nitroglycerin is relaxation of veins with decreased ventricular preload.

Pulmonary vascular pressures and heart size are significantly reduced.

In the absence of heart failure, cardiac output is reduced so orthostatic hypotension and syncope can result.

In heart failure, preload is often abnormally high and reducing preload has a beneficial effect on cardiac output.

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Nitrates & Nitrites Cont’d

There is no evidence that total coronary flow is increased in patients with angina.

Redistribution of coronary flow from normal to ischemic regions may play a role.

Sildenafil (Viagra) potentiates the action of nitrates used for angina.

Severe hypotension and even MI have been reported in men taking both drugs.

at least 6 hours should pass between use of a nitrate and sildenafil.

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Nitrates & Nitrites Effects In angina of effort:

↓venous return and ↓intracardiac volume. systemic Nitrates may decrease overall coronary blood flow (and

myocardial oxygen consumption) if cardiac output is reduced due to decreased venous return.

↓oxygen consumption is the major mechanism.

In variant angina: Relieving epicardial coronary artery spasm.

In unstable angina: by dilating the epicardial coronary arteries and also by

reducing oxygen demand. they also decreases platelet aggregation which may be of importance in unstable angina.

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Nitrates & Nitrites Side Effects

Is an extension of their effect: Tachycardia Increased cardiac contractility Retention of salt and water Development of tolerance Orthostatic hypotension Throbbing headache

Nitrates are contraindicated if intracranial pressure is elevated.

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Nitrates & Nitrites Side Effects Nitrite ion reacts with hemoglobin to produce

methemoglobin (Fe3+) and results in pseudocyanosis, tissue hypoxia, and death.

Fortunately, even large doses of nitrates cannot cause significant methemoglobinemia in adults.

In nursing infants, the intestinal flora can convert inorganic nitrate, eg, from well water, to nitrite ion.

In addition, sodium nitrite is used as a curing agent for meats.

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Nitrates & Nitrites Side Effects Thus, inadvertent exposure to large amounts of nitrite

ion can occur and may produce serious toxicity. Cyanide poisoning results from complexing of

cytochrome iron by the CN- ion. Methemoglobin iron has a very high affinity for CN-;

thus, sodium nitrite will regenerate active cytochrome.

The cyanmethemoglobin is detoxified by the IV sodium thiosulfate.

This results in formation of thiocyanate ion (SCN-), that is readily excreted.

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Nitrates & Nitrites Side Effects Methemoglobinemia, if excessive, was treated by IV

methylene blue. Now hydroxocobalamin (a form of Vit. B12) is used. It has a very high affinity for cyanide and converts it

to another form of vitamin B12.

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Mechanism of Ca2+ Channel Blockers

these drugs reduce cardiac contractility & ↓rate of SA node & ↓conduction velocity of AV node.

the drugs used for cardiovascular indications are exclusively L-type CCBs.

Tissues in which other Ca2+ channel types play a major role are much less affected by these drugs.

Skeletal muscle is not depressed by the calcium channel blockers because it uses intracellular pools of calcium.

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Type Where FoundProperties of

the Ca2+ CurrentBlocked By

LCardiac, skeletal, smooth muscle, neurons, retina, endocrine cells, bone

Long, large, high threshold

Verapamil, DHPs, Cd2+, -aga-IIIA

T Heart, neuronsShort, small, low threshold

sFTX, flunarizine, Ni2+, mibefradil1

NNeurons, sperm2 Short, high

threshold

Ziconotide,3 gabapentin,4 -CTX-GVIA, -aga-IIIA, Cd2+

P/Q NeuronsLong, high threshold

-CTX-MVIIC, -aga-IVA

R Neurons, sperm2 PacemakingSNX-482, -aga-IIIA

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Ca2+ Channel Blockers Effects

Vascular smooth muscle is the most sensitive (arterioles more sensitive than veins)

Besides reduction in BP, coronary artery tone decreases in variant angina.

Orthostatic hypotension is not a common adverse effect

Similar relaxation occurs in bronchiolar, GI, and uterine smooth muscle.

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Ca2+ Channel Blockers Effects

The block can be partially reversed by ↑Ca2+, and drugs that ↑the transmembrane flux of calcium, (sympathomimetics).

Dihydropyridines have a greater ratio of vascular to cardiac effects.

Nifedipine is less depressant on the heart than verapamil or diltiazem.

Nifedipine does not decrease AV conduction and is more safe in the AV conduction abnormalities.

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Ca2+ Channel Blockers Effects

In the hypotention, Nifedipine can cause further lowering of pressure.

Verapamil and diltiazem appear to produce less hypotension.

Verapamil and diltiazem block tachycardias in calcium-dependent cells (AV node) more selectively than nifedipine.

In atrial tachycardia, flutter, and fibrillation, verapamil and diltiazem provide a distinct advantage.

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Ca2+ Channel Blockers Effects

Verapamil blocks the P-glycoprotein responsible for the transport of many drugs out of cancer cells.

Verapamil partially reverses the resistance of cancer cells to many chemotherapeutic drugs.

In the patient receiving digitalis, verapamil may increase digoxin blood levels through a pharmacokinetic interaction.

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Ca2+ Channel Blockers Effects

Nicardipine, has a high affinity for cerebral blood vessels and reduces morbidity following a subarachnoid hemorrhage.

It is used by IV and intracerebral arterial infusion to prevent cerebral vasospasm associated with stroke.

Verapamil, despite its lack of vasoselectivity, is used by the intra-arterial route in stroke.

CCBs may also reduce cerebral damage after thromboembolic stroke.

Amlodipine, does not increase the mortality of patients with heart failure and can be used safely in these patients.

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Ca2+ Channel Blockers Toxicity

Some are an extension of their effect: Serious cardiac depression Bradycardia Atrioventricular block Worsening of heart failure (except Amlodipine) Cardiac arrest Constipation (verapamil)

Sympathetic antagonism is most marked with diltiazem and much less with verapamil. Nifedipine has no effect.

So Reflex tachycardia in response to hypotension occurs most frequently with nifedipine.

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β - Blockers

Their most important mechanism is reduction of heart rate and blood pressure.

β-blockers decrease mortality of patients with recent myocardial infarction.

They improve survival and prevent stroke in patients with hypertension.

In stable angina, beta blockers have shown better outcome than CCBs.

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β - Blockers Cont’d

Patients receiving β-blockers are more sensitive to the cardiodepressant effects of CCBs.

A combination of verapamil or diltiazem with β-blockers may produce AV block and ventricular depression.

Contraindications are: asthma, severe bradycardia, AV blockade, bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome, and severe LV failure.

complications include: fatigue, impaired exercise tolerance, insomnia, unpleasant dreams, worsening of claudication, and erectile dysfunction.

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Drugs under Investigation for Use in Angina.

Metabolic modulators, eg, trimetazidine, ranolazine

Direct bradycardic agents, eg, ivabradine

Potassium channel activators, eg, nicorandil

Rho-kinase inhibitors, eg, fasudil

Protein kinase G facilitators, eg, detanonoate

Sulfonylureas, eg, glybenclamide

Thiazolidinediones

Vasopeptidase inhibitors

Nitric oxide donors, eg, L-arginine

Capsaicin

Amiloride

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Newer Antianginal Drugs

The metabolic modulators (eg, trimetazidine) are known as pFOX inhibitors

They partially inhibit the fatty acid oxidation pathway in myocardium.

Because metabolism shifts to oxidation of fatty acids in ischemic myocardium, the oxygen requirement per unit of ATP produced increases.

Partial inhibition of the enzyme required for fatty acid oxidation improves the metabolic status of ischemic tissue.

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Newer Antianginal Drugs

Bradycardic drugs, (If sodium channel blockers eg, ivabradine), reduce cardiac rate by inhibiting sodium channel in the SA node.

Ivabradine reduces anginal attacks with an efficacy similar to that of CCBs and beta blockers.

The lack of effect on GI and bronchial smooth muscle is an advantage of ivabradine.

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Newer Antianginal Drugs

Nicorandil is a nicotinamide nitrate ester and a nitro-Vasodilators.

It reduces both preload and afterload.

It also provides myocardial protection via preconditioning by activation of KATP channels.

It significantly reduces relative risk of fatal and nonfatal coronary events.

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Practical Issues

First-line therapy is decrease of risk factors: Smoking Hypertension Hyperlipidemia Obesity Depression

Antiplatelet drugs are very important.

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ISDN: Isosorbide DinitrateGTN: Nitroglycerin

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Practical Issues Cont’d

Angina of Effort In hypertensive patients, monotherapy with calcium

channel blockers or β blockers is adequate.

In normotensive patients, long-acting nitrates is suitable.

The combination of a β blocker with a CCB (propranolol & nifedipine) or two different CCB (nifedipine & verapamil) is more effective than each drugs alone.

Some patients may require therapy with all three drug groups.

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Practical Issues Cont’d

Vasospastic Angina: Nitrates and the calcium channel blockers are

effective drugs for variant angina.

Prevention of coronary artery spasm is the principal mechanism for this beneficial response.

Surgical revascularization and angioplasty are not indicated in patients with variant angina.

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Practical Issues Cont’d

Intermittent claudication Two drugs are used almost exclusively for

peripheral artery disease Pentoxifylline, a xanthine derivative, acts by reducing

the viscosity of blood. Cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase type 3 (PDE3) inhibitor,

may have selective antiplatelet and vasodilating effects.

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Clinical Pharmacology of Anti Angina Drugs

Angina of Effort Surgical revascularization (coronary artery bypass

grafting [CABG]) and catheter-based revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) are the primary methods for promptly restoring coronary blood flow and increasing oxygen supply to the myocardium.

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Clinical Pharmacology of Anti Angina Drugs

Unstable Angina recurrent platelet-rich nonocclusive thrombus formation is

the principal mechanism.

Aggressive antiplatelet therapy is indicated.

heparin is also indicated in most patients.

nitroglycerin and β blockers should be considered; calcium channel blockers are added in refractory cases.

lipid-lowering and ACE-inhibitor therapy should also be initiated.

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SummaryIn English

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Thank youAny question?