Teeth discoloration

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  1. 1. TEETH DISCOLORATION ETIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Prepared by : Ahmed Salah Abbas . Under supervision of : Dr . Nermin Alsayed . Lecturer of operative dentistry . Minia university .
  2. 2. Tooth discoloration varies with etiology, appearance, localization, severity and adherence to the tooth structure. It may be classified as extrinsic or intrinsic discoloration or combination . In this presentation , we will talk about classification , etiology , management of tooth discoloration .
  3. 3. A. Intrinsic discoloration . B. Extrinsic discoloration .
  4. 4. Intrinsic discoloration : is defined as endogenous staining that has been incorporated into the tooth matrix and thus can not be removed by prophylaxis. Intrinsic discoloration include the following : A . Dental fluorosis : is a dental defect results from increased level of flourides in the drinking water during the period of teeth development . With level >1.2 ppm .
  5. 5. Clinically : there are several grades of dental flourosis : Grade Description Very mild Small paper white or chalky white areas less than 25 % of the surface . Mild Opaque areas up to 50 % of the surface . Moderate Paper white or brownish areas involving nearly the whole surface . Severe The enamel is opaque , brown , pitted , brittle and easily chipped away from the tooth surface .
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  7. 7. Treatment : A. bleaching : effective with simple cases as brown staining on the surface , but it`s less effective for opaque cases , it will make it less noticeable but will not remove it completely . B. veneering : can be applied for mild and moderate cases and gives results better than bleaching in these cases . C. crowns : indicated for severe cases where there is a surface mottling .
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  9. 9. Tetracycline is taken by calcifying tissues . It produces its effect when given during teeth development , so tetracycline is contraindicated for pregnant woman and child under the age of (12) years old. When tetracycline stained teeth are exposed to sun light ,they convert from yellow to darker color ( brown , gray ) , this explains the lighter color of molars when compared with anteriors due to longer duration of exposure to sun light .
  10. 10. Clinically : Grade Clinical description Treatment First degree Light yellow or light gray , uniformly distributed throughout the crown without banding or concentrated in a local area . it`s highly amenable to vital bleaching ,provides good results within less than four sessions . Second degree Darker or more extensive yellow or gray staining without banding It`s amenable to vital bleaching , but it takes more sessions . Third degree Severe staining characterized by dark gray or bluish discoloration with banding . Vital bleaching lighten the discoloration but don`t give a satisfactory result ,so veneers with opaquers are necessary . fourth degree stains that too dark for bleaching and dont`t follow one of the previous categories . Veneers with opaquers .
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  12. 12. 1. Porphria : a group of disorders of heme biosynthesis ,characterized by excessive excretion of porphyrins . Clinically : occur in deciduous and permanent teeth , appear pink or lavender in color , fluoresce bright red under ultraviolet light . Treatment : bleaching .
  13. 13. 2 . Erythroblastosis fetalis : grave hemolytic anemia results from development of ( Rh antibody ) in response to (Rh factor ) in the fetal blood . Clinically : teeth are bluish or greenish in color . Treatment : bleaching .
  14. 14. 3 . Other systemic diseases : as amelogenesis imperfecta, deficiency in vit. C , D . Clinically : opaque white patches which may be stained in the cases of hypomineralized enamel . Pitted and grooved tooth surface in the cases of hypoplastic enamel . Treatment : bleaching isn`t appropriate treatment , the treatment for such cases is veneering or crowning for such teeth .
  15. 15. D. Aging : With age there will be a change in the color of teeth due to the enamel will be thin and dentin will be thicker due to deposition of secondary dentin so the tooth will appear darker , also there will be staining of teeth and this will depend on individual variations of consumption of tea , coffee , beverages , alcohol , smoking . Clinically : the teeth more yellowish ,darker . Treatment : bleaching is effective , especially when there is a sufficient thickness of enamel .
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  17. 17. Degraded tooth colored restorations can cause teeth to appear gray or discolored . Also metallic restorations as amalgam and gold restorations can reflect their colors through tooth surfaces . In such cases replacement the old restorations by more accurate and invisible restorations as composite restorations and bleaching isn`t necessary in such cases .
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  19. 19. F . Non vital teeth discoloration : In cases of teeth with necrotic pulps , teeth show gray discoloration . In such cases we should perform endodontic treatment to save the teeth , then we perform walking bleaching , in attempt to restore normal color of the teeth .
  20. 20. Extrinsic discoloration : The most common discoloration of vital teeth , caused by food and beverages as coffee , tea , somking , tobacco , marijuana . Clinically : produces yellowish brown to black discoloration usually on the cervical portion of the lingual surface of teeth . Treatment : microabrasion usually sufficient for such cases , also vital bleaching can be performed if the enamel is slightly stained .
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  22. 22. Bleaching Because tooth bleaching does not affect the structural integrity of the dentition, there is no relationship of tooth function and de- coloration. In general, tooth de-coloration should be undertaken before restorative treatment, but not for functional reasons. It makes sense to establish the baseline coloration of the overall dentition so that all restorative efforts can be directed toward a definitive goal.
  23. 23. A. Vital bleaching . B. Non vital bleaching . C. Home bleaching .
  24. 24. Factors affecting bleaching : Surface Cleanliness All extrinsic stains and surface films must be removed from the tooth surface before bleaching. This will maximize the contact area between the whitening agent and the tooth as well as minimize the chance of diluting the bleaching agent. Concentration Higher concentrations of carbamide peroxide produce a more rapid whitening effect15 as well as increased tooth sensitivity.2,15 This speed effect is not linear .
  25. 25. The Use of a Light Meta-analysis studies on the use of light during in-office vital bleaching demonstrated that light-activated systems produced better immediate bleaching results than non-light systems when lower concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (15%-20%) were used.At higher concentrations of HP (25%-35%), no differences were noted. In addition, light-activated systems produced a higher percentage of tooth sensitivity than the non-light systems . Temperature increasing temperature doesn`t increase the speed of bleaching , but cause overheating of the pulp .
  26. 26. Buffering Agents To maintain a more neural pH, buffering agents are added to the gel. These agents protect the pulp and promote the continued production of free radicals . Time The longer the duration of bleach exposure, the greater the degree of whitening. However, extended exposure to bleaching agents increases the likelihood of sensitivity . Whitening Gel Viscosity and Solubility in-office gels are mixed with even higher viscosity base to prevent the gel from running off the teeth. However, high viscosity anhydrous bases exhibit high surface tension , which can slow the absorption of gel into the microstructure of teeth .
  27. 27. Vital bleacing In-office bleaching is useful in the removal of stains throughout the arch (e.g., age, diet or tetracycline staining), for lightening a single tooth in an arch (e.g., post-endodontically , non vital bleaching ) Indications : Developmental or acquired stains Stains in enamel and dentin Yellow-brown stains Age-yellowed smiles White or brown fluorosis Mild to moderate tetracycline stains
  28. 28. Contraindications A . should be avoided for teeth with large pulp chambers or those that have exhibited sensitivity. B. Patients with erosions, whether chemical, abrasive, or caused by recession, may experience more bleaching sensitivity through and after treatment. C . Factors that can limit the success of bleaching are the degree and quality of the discoloration. If the teeth are extremely dark, no matter what the cause , so bleaching should be supported with restorative treatment .
  29. 29. Bleaching agents : either 30%-35% hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide concentrations that yield high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide) in liquid or gel form. Armamentarium: A . Tinted protective eye glasses with side shields (for patient and operator). B . shade guide to record shade. C . Bleaching agent . D . Bite block/retractor . E . Saliva ejectors .
  30. 30. Clinical technique : A . Pretreatment photographs . B . Pretreatment shade determination . C . Clean the teeth with flour of pumice in a prophylaxis cup . D . Petroleum jelly can be applied to the lips for protection. Because petroleum jelly can cause latex to degrade, nitrile gloves should be used . E . Place liquid rubber dam over the gingiva and polymerize with a curing light according to the manufacturers instruction . F . Apply bleaching agent for the time and duration as specified in the manufacturers instructions .
  31. 31. G . After the appropriate bleaching time remove the gel with copious amounts of water and suction . H . Repeat the procedure according to the manufacturer instructions if required. Note : Repeated bleaching sessions may be