• Mental health disorders in combination with environmental settings
• Families with long history of addiction– Treatment is not an option for an
adolescent unless all family members are clean and sober at all times
(Hogue, A., & Liddle, H., 2009)
• Family-based treatment produces longer lasting treatment gains– Support of family members– Positive family environment for adolescent– Decreases the need for substances to cope with emotions
(Dakof, G., Greenbaum, R., Henderson, C., & Liddle, H., 2008)
• Individual intervention– Student Assistance Program (SAP): School professionals refer students
with substance abuse problems & work together on a goal to help student
• DrugFree.com & TeenScreen National Nation– Mission is to help educate adults & parents about substance abuse
addiction and proper methods in approaching, preventing, and fixing the issue
• Anonymous. (2011). ProQuest. Marketing and licensing agreements; The partnership at Drugfree.org and TeenScreen National Center announce collaboration, 1656.
• Baiocco, R., & Tafa, M. (2009). The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. Addictive behavior and family functioning during adolescence, 37, 388-395.
• Burrow-Sanchez, J., Clark, E., & Jenson, W. (2009). Department of Educational Psychology, University of Utah. School-based interventions for students with substance abuse, 46, 238-245.
• Dakof, G., Greenbaum, P., Henderson, C., & Liddle, H. (2008). Society for the Study of Addiction. Treating adolescent drug abuse: a randomized trial comparing multidimensional family therapy and cognitive behavior therapy, 103, 1660-1670.
• Dickinson, A., Schwabe, L., & Wolf, O. (2011). ProQuest. Stress, habits, and drug addiction: A psychoneuroendocrinological perspective, 19, 53-63.
• Hogue, A., & Liddle, H. (2009). Journal of Family Therapy. Family-based treatment for adolescent substance abuse: controlled trials and new horizons in services research, 31, 126-154.