Pulse Oximetry

  • Published on
    07-May-2015

  • View
    9.998

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

An overview of the medical applications of Pusle Oximetry

Transcript

<ul><li>1.<ul><li>Background </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Hemoglobin </li></ul> <ul><li>Gas Exchange and Respiration </li></ul> <p>2. HEMOGLOBIN </p> <ul><li>Hemoglobin (abbreviated Hb) is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of vertebrates. Hemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body, where it releases the oxygen for cell use. </li></ul> <p>3. HEMOGLOBIN (continue) 4. Gas exchange and respiration 5. Gas exchange and respiration 6. What is a Pulse Oximeter? </p> <ul><li>A Pulse Oximeter is a device used to perform the diagnostic procedure for determining the: </li></ul> <ul><li>Percentage of hemoglobin (Hb) that is saturated with oxygen</li></ul> <ul><li>The oxygen saturation (SpO2) is a measure of how much oxygen the blood is carrying as a percentage of the maximum it could carry and is sometimes referred to colloquially as the "sats" reading </li></ul> <ul><li>The heart rate </li></ul> <ul><li>The heart rate refers to the number of times that the heart contracts in a period of one minute </li></ul> <p>7. TYPES OF OXIMETERS </p> <ul><li>Designs: </li></ul> <ul><li>Pulse Oximeter as part of an anesthetic machine </li></ul> <ul><li>A portable desktop unit </li></ul> <ul><li>A finger/mobile pulse Oximeter</li></ul> <p>8. Pulse Oximeteras part of an anesthetic machine 9. Pulse Oximeters(continue) </p> <ul><li>Desktop </li></ul> <ul><li>Finger/mobile </li></ul> <p>10. What does a Pulse Oximeter tell you? </p> <ul><li>A Pulse Oximeter can detect hypoxia (too little oxygen to fulfill the needs of the brain and body) before a patient shows signs of becoming cyanotic (bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to not enough oxygen in the blood).</li></ul> <p>11. Pulse Oximetersmay be used in patients: </p> <ul><li>Undergoing surgical procedure under general anesthesia</li></ul> <ul><li>Undergoing surgical procedure under conscious sedation </li></ul> <p>12. Pulse Oximetersmay be used in patients: </p> <ul><li>Emergency situations like loss of consciousness, trauma etc.</li></ul> <ul><li>After surgery during the recovery phase </li></ul> <ul><li>Monitoring the blood oxygen saturation in various aviation situations </li></ul> <ul><li>Sport applications e.g. mountaineering </li></ul> <p>13. Pulse Oximetersmay be used in patients: </p> <ul><li>In the ICU, Pulse Oximetry is used extensively on mechanically ventilated patients, as it can frequently detect problems with oxygenation before they are noticed clinically, as well as a valuable guide for weaning patients off ventilation and helping to assess the adequacy of a patient's oxygen therapy.</li></ul> <ul><li>This continuing assessment process has been instrumental in the introduction of Pulse Oximeter usage within the community and homecare environment of patients suffering from a variety of heart and lung diseases and conditions</li></ul> <ul><li>Pulse Oximeters are routinely used in certain hospital wards and in casualty departments for immediate assessment of patients</li></ul> <p>14. Pulse Oximeterreading may not be accurate: </p> <ul><li>Reduced peripheral pulsatile blood flow</li></ul> <ul><li>Venous congestion (partial obstruction of the veins) of an arm or leg</li></ul> <ul><li>Bright overhead lights, such as in an operating theatre </li></ul> <ul><li>Shivering or significant, repeated movement of the sensor</li></ul> <p>15. Pulse Oximeterreading may not be accurate: </p> <ul><li>Pulse oximetry struggles to distinguish between different forms of hemoglobin, such as carboxy-hemoglobin (hemoglobin combined with carbon monoxide)</li></ul> <ul><li>Nail varnish may cause falsely low readings with most pulse Oximeters, especially those colored blue or black </li></ul> <p>16. The following wont affect the Pulse Oximeter reading: </p> <ul><li>Anemia </li></ul> <ul><li>Jaundice </li></ul> <p>17. But what is a "normal" reading? </p> <ul><li>Firstly, we would ask "normal for whom"?</li></ul> <ul><li>A fit, healthy person should have an oxygen saturation level between 95% &amp; 99%. Results lower than this, and especially below 90% may be caused by problems including lung diseases, such as COPD, breathing difficulties, cigarette smoking or circulatory problems such as excessive bleeding or blood vessel problems.</li></ul> <p>18. How does a Pulse Oximeter Work? </p> <ul><li>The measurements are obtained by simply shining two wavelengths of light (1 is a visible red beam, the other an invisible infrared beam) at e.g. the fingertip.</li></ul> <ul><li>By measuring how much light has been absorbed by the oxygen in the blood, an oxygen saturation or sats reading is established and displayed as a percentage of the maximum amount of oxygen the blood could carry. </li></ul> <p>19. Q1 If a patients saturation is unacceptably low, what are your immediate actions? </p> <ul><li>Check Airways, Breathing and Circulation (ABC) </li></ul> <p>20. Q1 If a patients saturation is unacceptably low, what are your immediate actions? </p> <ul><li>Check Airways, Breathing and Circulation (ABC) </li></ul> <p>21. Q2 An elderly patient is admitted with pneumonia and has a pulse oximetry reading of 75% breathing air. With oxygen 6L per min, saturation improves to 85%. What are the implications of this oximetry reading? 22. Q2 An elderly patient is admitted with pneumonia and has a pulse oximetry reading of 75% breathing air. With oxygen 6L per min, saturation improves to 85%. What are the implications of this oximetry reading? </p> <ul><li>The patient was severely hypoxic (Lack of Oxygen)</li></ul> <ul><li>Increase oxygen flow </li></ul> <p>23. Q3 What happens to the pulse Oximeter reading of a patient immediately after a cardiac arrest?</p> <ul><li>The pulse would be lost (causing the alarm to sound) and the saturations will decrease </li></ul> <p>24. Q3 What happens to the pulse Oximeter reading of a patient immediately after a cardiac arrest?</p> <ul><li>The pulse would be lost (causing the alarm to sound) and the saturations will decrease </li></ul> <p>25. Q4 What happens to the Pulse Oximeter reading of a patient immediately after a respiratory arrest?</p> <ul><li>The saturations decrease until cardiac arrest occurs </li></ul> <p>26. Q4 What happens to the Pulse Oximeter reading of a patient immediately after a respiratory arrest?</p> <ul><li>The saturations decrease until cardiac arrest occurs </li></ul> <p>27. In conclusion </p> <ul><li>Pulse Oximetry is a useful modality for assessing a patients pulse rate and Hemoglobin Oxygen saturation in a number of routine and emergency medical situations </li></ul> <ul><li>The clinician should be aware of the limitations of Pulse Oximetry and the various factors that may produce a falsely low or high reading </li></ul> <ul><li>Always keep the basics principles of medicine in mind, and keep a high level of suspicion- especially when the figures dont make sense!</li></ul> <p>28. THANK YOU for your undivided attention!!! </p> <ul><li>I appreciate the opportunity to invest into your lives!! </li></ul> <p>29. WOULD YOU LIKE TO OWN A PROFESSIONAL PULSE OXIMETER? </p> <ul><li>CLICK HERE TOORDER A PROFESSIONAL QUALITYPULSE OXIMETERAND HEART RATE MONITOR WITH ANOLEDCOLOR SCREEN AND FINGER PULSE WAVE GRAPH! </li></ul> <ul><li>$59.00 </li></ul>