Fumigation of operation theaters

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Fumigation of operation theaters

Text of Fumigation of operation theaters

  • 3. WHAT IS FORMALDEHYDE? Formaldehyde has the chemical elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in its structure. Hydrocarbons are among the most common of chemical compositions. The human body includes hydrocarbons among its elements and compounds, and it requires formaldehyde to metabolize biochemical substances. Formaldehyde is usually sold as an aqueous or watery solution called formalin, which contains 37 to 50 percent formaldehyde by weight. It is soluble in water, but not in most organic solvents, except alcohol and ether. It is principally used to produce resins, other industrial chemicals, and consumer items and as a bactericide or fungicide.DR.T.V.RAO MD 3
  • 4. HOW CAN FORMALDEHYDE AFFECT OUR HEALTH? Based on the best available evidence in OSHAs record on formaldehyde, OSHA determined that formaldehyde isgenotoxic, showing properties of both a cancer initiator and promoter (early and late stage carcinogen). When inhaled, formaldehyde is a carcinogen in rats. In humans, formaldehyde exposure has been associated with cancers of the lung,nasopharynx and oropharynx, and nasal passages When humans are exposed to excess levels of formaldehyde, adverse health effects can result. Symptoms of excess exposure include respiratory irritation; watery, itchy eyes; itchy, runny, or stuffy nose; dry or sore throat; and headache. The EPA and OSHA recognize that contact with formaldehyde can cause skin irritation and dermatitis.DR.T.V.RAO MD 4
  • 5. FUMIGATION Formaldehyde a Age old compound. Low temp heating produce vapor Vapor phase decontaminates the air/environment. Kills vegetative bacteria / Spore ? When Formaldehyde mixed with water and exposed to elevated temperature Gaseous formaldehyde is generated Time X Temp DR.T.V.RAO MD 5
  • 6. FUMIGATION To sterilize the operation theatre formaldehyde gas (bactericidal & sporicidal,viricidal) is widely employed as it is cheaper for sterilization of huge areas like operation theatres. Formaldehyde kills the microbes by alkylating the amino acids and sulfhydryl group of proteins and purine bases. In spite of the gas being hazardous continues to be used in several developing countries DR.T.V.RAO MD 6
  • 7. FUMIGATION Fumigation usually involves the following phases: First the area to be fumigated is usually covered to create a sealed environment; next the fumigant is released into the space to be fumigated; then, the space is held for a set period while the fumigant gas percolates through the space and acts on and kills any infestation in the product, next the space is ventilated so that the poisonous gases are allowed to escape from the space, and render it safe for humans to enter. DR.T.V.RAO MD 7
  • 8. PROCEDURE OF FUMIGATION Thoroughly clean windows, doors, floor, walls and all washable equipments with soap and water. Close windows and ventilators tightly. If any openings found seal it with cellophane tape or other material. Switch off all lights, A/C and other electrical & electronic items Calculate the room size in cubic feet (LBH) and calculate the required amount of formaldehyde as given inDR.T.V.RAO MD 8
  • 9. PERSONAL CARE DURING FUMIGATION Adequate care must be taken by wearing cap, mask, foot cover, spectacles Formaldehyde is irritant to eye & nose; and it has been recognized as a potential carcinogen. So the fumigating employee must be provided with the personal protective equipments.DR.T.V.RAO MD 9
  • 10. CREATING THE FORMALDEHYDE GAS Electric Boiler Fumigation Method: For Each 1000 cu.ft of the volume of the operation theatre 500ml of formaldehyde (40% solution) added in 1000ml of water in an electric boiler. Switch on the boiler, leave the room and seal the door. After 45 minutes (variable depending to volume present in the boils apparatus) switch off the boiler without entering in to the room .DR.T.V.RAO MD 10
  • 11. METHODS ON FUMIGATION In principle we have to generate Formaldehyde gas. Can be done by Most easier way to mix the needed quantity of Formalin to water and heating at lower temperatures at 80 0c 900cCan done also with addition of Formalin to potassium permanganate DR.T.V.RAO MD 11
  • 12. ADDING POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE TO FORMALDEHYDE.. Potassium Permanganate Method: For every 1000 cubic feet add 450gm of Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) to 500 ml of formaldehyde (40% solution). Take about 5 to 8 bowels (heat resistant; place it in various locations) with equally divided parts of formaldehyde and add equally divided KMnO4 to each bowel. This will cause auto boiling and generate fume. After the initiation of formaldehyde vapour, immediately leave the room and seal it for at least 48 hours. DR.T.V.RAO MD 12
  • 13. FUMIGATION TO BE NEUTRALIZED Neutralize Residual formalin gas with Ammonia by exposing 250 ml of Ammonia per liter of Formaldehyde used. Place the ammonia solution in the centre of the room and leave it for 3 hours to neutralize the formalin vapour DR.T.V.RAO MD 13
  • 14. AN EXAMPLE IS SET AS.. Operation Theatre Volume = LBH = 20 15 10 = 3000 cubic feet Formaldehyde required for fumigation = 500 ml for 1000 cubic feet = So 1500 ml of formaldehyde required Ammonia required for neutralization = 150ml of 10% ammonia for 500 ml of formaldehyde = So 450 ml of 10% ammonia requiredDR.T.V.RAO MD 14
  • 15. WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF FORMALDEHYDE ALLERGY? Inhaling formaldehyde can lead to symptoms such as a burning sensation and irritation in eyes, nose and throat, coughing, wheezing, tightness in throat, watery eyes and runny nose. It can also lead to breathlessness . Pulmonary edema and pneumonitis can be caused if it injures the respiratory tract.DR.T.V.RAO MD 15
  • 16. FORMALDEHYDE ALLERGY Formaldehyde allergy symptoms include redness, burning sensation, skin rash, scaling, cracking, white discoloration and irritation of skin and might cause hives as well. Eye contact can cause pain, inflammation, blurred vision and excess tearing.DR.T.V.RAO MD 16
  • 17. WHAT IS THE FORMALDEHYDE ALLERGY TREATMENT? First thing to do in case of any allergy is to avoid contact with the substance causing allergic reaction. With formaldehyde present in so many things, it might be difficult to do so. If your skin or eyes come in direct contact with formaldehyde, you must soon flush that part with a lot of cold water. If you observe the formaldehyde allergy symptoms after consuming food, then you must drink a lot of water or milk so as to dilute it and consult a physician soon. In case of a skin reaction, topical ointments used for eczema and contact dermatitis might be prescribed by your doctor for allergy reliefDR.T.V.RAO MD 17
  • 18. FORMALDEHYDE AS CARCINOGEN Formaldehyde is listed by the International Agency for