3arrythmia pharmacotherapy

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  • 1.Cardiac arrhythmia Abnormal cardiac rhythm usually involving a change in rate or regularity. Synonym: dysrhythmia

2. Etiology Physiological: -sympathetic or parasympathetic control changes eg. Stress , anxiety, exercise , smoking. Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism Hypoadrenalism Hyperkalemia hypokalemia and other electrolyte changes. 3. Pathological: Valvular heart disease. Ischemic heart disease.----------MI causing death of pacemaker cells or conducting tissue. Hypertensive heart diseases. Congenital heart disease. Cardiomyopathies. Carditis. RV dysplasia. Drug related. Pericarditis. Pulmonary diseases. Others. 4. CLINICAL EVALUATION I. PHYSICAL FINDINGS Palpitation. Dizziness. Chest Pain. Abnormal pulse rate , rhythm or amplitude Dyspnea. Anxiety and confusion (from reduced brain perfusion) Fainting (syncope) Skin pallor or cyanosis Reduced blood pressure Weakness Convulsions Decreased urinary output Sudden cardiac death. 5. II. DIAGNOSTIC TEST RESULTS ECG electrophysiological (EP) testing His bundle study III. LAB FINDINGS: hyperkalemia (>5mEq/L) Hypocalcemia (