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"Post Harvest Management And Value Addition In Garlic"

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  • Post Harvest Management AndPost Harvest Management And Value Addition In GarlicValue Addition In Garlic SUBMITTED BY Saurav Singh Kharayat ID No - 39608 SUBMITTED TO Dr.N.K.Mishra Dr.Anita Singh
  • What Is GarlicWhat Is Garlic A strongly scented herb belonging to genus Allium of the family Liliaceae. Contains hundreds of constituents with at least 23 identified sulphur compounds. Common names are Knoblaunch (German), da suan (Chinese)
  • History of GarlicHistory of Garlic It is assumed that Garlic originated from Central Asia particularly China. Sanskrit records the usage of garlic 5,000 years ago Chinese have used garlic for at least 3,000 years Aristotle & Hippocrates researched and wrote about garlic for medicinal usage
  • Brief Flash-BackBrief Flash-Back Garlic having cordial role in value addition because of its medicinal properties. Garlic has been used since time immemorial but it was in mid 18th century when the famous microbiologist, Louis Pasteur performed some experiment on garlic and recognized its bactericidal, bacteriostatic and immune system enhancing properties. Garlic was called Russian penicillin during World War II because, after running out of antibiotic, the Russian government turned to this ancient treatment for its soldiers. After World War II, Sandoz Pharmaceuticals manufactured a garlic compound for intestinal spasms, and the Van Patten Company produced another for lowering blood pressure.
  • Drying and CuringDrying and Curing Drying is done to remove excess moisture from outer skin and neck to reduce storage rot, while curing is an additional process of drying to remove the excess moisture and to allow the color development and help the bulbs to become compact and go into dormant stage. Drying is done for about a week in the field while Curing vary depending on weather at the time of harvesting. Curing is done for 7-10 days in shade either with tops or after curing the tops by leaving 2.5 cm above the bulbs and removing the roots. Note: Artificial curing can be done by passing hot air at 27.35C through the curing room. It takes about 48 hours for complete curing process if humidity is between 60 - 75%.
  • Sorting and GradingSorting and Grading Garlic bulbs after curing are run over a grader or graded manually before their storage or marketing. The thick- necked, splitted, injured, diseased or bulbs with hollow cloves are sorted out. Size grading is done after sorting. It is very much necessary for getting better price and to minimize losses on account of driage and decay.
  • PackagingPackaging In India, garlic bulbs are packed in open mesh jute bags for domestic use. As per the garlic grading and packing rules, 18 and 25 kg packing are done in perforated 10 ply corrugated cardboard boxes for export. Nylon- netted bags used for packing and further storage cause minimum losses in storage. In foreign countries, plastic-wooven bags are very commonly used. These have good strength and are also attractive. Note: garlic needs less ventilation compared to onion, there is a need to develop suitable packaging to reduce driage loss.
  • StorageStorage Thoroughly cured garlic bulbs are stored well in ordinary well-ventilated rooms. Garlic with dried leaves can be stored by hanging in well-ventilated rooms. This is, however, not possible on commercial scale because space requirement is more. Storage without tops in nylon-netted bags give better performance. Cold storage of garlic is possible at 32-36F and 60-70% relative humidity. UV light treatment for 30 minutes further reduces loss to 8% in cold stores for 150 days storage.
  • Physiological & PhysicalPhysiological & Physical DisordersDisorders Freeze injury: Due to its high solids content, garlic freezes at temperatures below -1C (30F). Waxy breakdown: Waxy breakdown is commonly found in stored and shipped garlic but rarely in the field. Low oxygen levels and inadequate ventilation during handling and storage may also contribute to development of waxy breakdown. Note: Waxy breakdown affects garlic during latter stages of growth and is often associated with periods of high temperature near harvest.
  • Pathological DisordersPathological Disorders Penicillium Rot. Common problems in stored garlic, affected bulbs are light in weight and the individual cloves are soft, spongy and powdery dry. In an advanced stage of decay, the cloves break down in a green or gray powdery mass. Remedy: Low humidity in storage retards rot development. Special Considerations To control sprout development and lengthen the storage period, garlic may be treated with preharvest applications of sprout inhibitors (i.e., maleic hydrazide) or be irradiated after harvest.
  • Fusarium Basal RotFusarium Basal Rot Leaves decay at the base, turn yellow, wilt, and topple overLeaves decay at the base, turn yellow, wilt, and topple over Roots and bulbs - covered with a fluffy white myceliumRoots and bulbs - covered with a fluffy white mycelium Affected bulbs may become watery, and the outer scales crack as the bulbAffected bulbs may become watery, and the outer scales crack as the bulb dries and shrinksdries and shrinks Small black sclerotic form on and in affected bulb partsSmall black sclerotic form on and in affected bulb parts
  • ControlControl Rotating out ofRotating out of AlliumAllium crops for ten yearscrops for ten years Destroying infected tissueDestroying infected tissue Planting disease - free seed stockPlanting disease - free seed stock Seed dressing with benomyl or carbendazim(100-150g/kg of seed)Seed dressing with benomyl or carbendazim(100-150g/kg of seed)
  • Botrytis Neck RotBotrytis Neck Rot Botrytis neck rot is seen primarily upon the bulbsupon the bulbs during storage. Affected scale tissue become softAffected scale tissue become soft Dense layer of grey mould appear at the neckDense layer of grey mould appear at the neck Infection progresses most rapidly down the scales which have beenInfection progresses most rapidly down the scales which have been originally infected.originally infected.
  • Mode Of Spread And SurvivalMode Of Spread And Survival *Survive as sclerotia*Survive as sclerotia *Requires cool and moist weather*Requires cool and moist weather *Temp -15 to 20 degree centrigrade*Temp -15 to 20 degree centrigrade ControlControl *Promoting rapid drying at harvest and good aeration in storage is best for*Promoting rapid drying at harvest and good aeration in storage is best for managing Botrytis on bulbsmanaging Botrytis on bulbs *Additionally, cooler storage temperatures may help control the disease*Additionally, cooler storage temperatures may help control the disease
  • Black MouldBlack Mould Whole tissue become black powdery massWhole tissue become black powdery mass Individual bulbs shrivel and become light in weightIndividual bulbs shrivel and become light in weight Under high humid condition the inner tissues become moderately softUnder high humid condition the inner tissues become moderately soft Infected bulbs lose their pungency and smellInfected bulbs lose their pungency and smell Rotten garlic cloves show black, brown, pink or white coloured rottingRotten garlic cloves show black, brown, pink or white coloured rotting
  • ControlControl Rapid and thorough curingRapid and thorough curing Storage - good ventilationStorage - good ventilation Temp - just above (0) zero degree centigrade.Temp - just above (0) zero degree centigrade.
  • Blue Mould RotBlue Mould Rot A blue-green color powdery mould is observed on cloves in soil and inA blue-green color powdery mould is observed on cloves in soil and in storage, thus its common name, Blue Mould.storage, thus its common name, Blue Mould. Air-borne spores spread the disease.Air-borne spores spread the disease. Infection first occurs on wounds sustained when cloves are separated fromInfection first occurs on wounds sustained when cloves are separated from the parent bulb.the parent bulb. Control:Control: Bulbs are harvested carefully to avoid wounds and bruising, then promptlyBulbs are harvested carefully to avoid wounds and bruising, then promptly dried or cured.dried or cured.
  • Basal RotBasal Rot Plants - show reduced emergence, yellowing and/or browningPlants - show reduced emergence, yellowing and/or browning (necrosis) of leaves beginning at tips(necrosis) of leaves beginning at tips Reduced bulb size, bulb decay, and brown, poorly developed rootReduced bulb size, bulb decay, and brown, poorly developed root systemssystems In storage - bulbs show spongy, sunken, yellow brown rotting lesionsIn storage - bulbs show spongy, sunken, yellow brown rotting lesions
  • ManagementManagement Avoid rotations withAvoid rotations with AlliumAllium spp.(e.g. onions and leeks) and cerealsspp.(e.g. onions and leeks) and cereals Store bulbs at cool temperatures and low humidity with goodStore bulbs at cool temperatures and low humidity with good ventilationventilation Avoid storing damaged bulbsAvoid storing damaged bulbs
  • Value AdditionValue Addition Garlic is replete with numerous properties and helps in; Common cold prevention, Heart disease prevention, Strengthens Immune System, having Antiseptic & Antimicrobial activities, Anticancer- Antioxidant & Anti coagulation effects, helps in reduction of High cholesterol and Hypertension and a good insect repellent. Being an above the mark spice, Garlic plays a cordial role in preparation of pulses, soups, chutney, pickles, sauces and other spicy food items and condiments in the Indian kitchen. Commercially, now some companies have introduced Garlic Candies, Garlic Soya and few other products which exponentially mushrooming the importance of garlic and its value in the market.
  • Garlic Products on the MarketGarlic Products on the Market Unlike most foods, food-processing does miraculous things to garlic. It triggers the formation of a cascade of compounds that do not already exist in raw garlic. Based on their chemical constituents, all garlic products on the market today could be placed in one of the following four categories: Garlic Essential oil Garlic Dehydrated powder Garlic Oil macerate Aged Garlic Extract
  • Garlic Essential OilsGarlic Essential Oils Garlic essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of garlic. The essential oil content of garlic cloves is 0.2-0.5% and consists of a variety of sulfides and beneficial in infections due to bacteria and fungus, tooth ache, maintain blood pressure and lower high blood pressure, helps to boost hair growth, and useful in stopping or curing cancer cell development.
  • Garlic Dehydrated Powder Garlic powder is mass-produced as a flavoring agent for condiments and processed foods. Garlic cloves are sliced or crushed, dried and pulverized into powder. Garlic powder is thought to retain the same ingredients as raw garlic; however, the proportions and amounts of various constituents differ significantly. Garlic Dehydrated Powder helps in : Strengthen the Immune System Having a blood-thinning benefit -- which can help people who suffering from high blood pressure and heart disease.
  • Garlic Oil Macerate Oil macerates were originally developed for use asOil macerates were originally developed for use as condiments.condiments. Oil macerate products are made of encapsulatedOil macerate products are made of encapsulated mixtures of whole garlic cloves ground into vegetable oil.mixtures of whole garlic cloves ground into vegetable oil.
  • Aged Garlic Extract AGE is a form of garlic created using extraction and a proprietary process of aging. Long before it is subjected to extraction and aging process, the garlic is grown on selected farms following strictly controlled organic conditions. No chemical fertilizers, herbicides or pesticides are used in the farming of the garlic. The garlic is harvested, cleaned, sliced and stored in stainless steel tanks under carefully controlled conditions without the use of a heating process. The garlic is stored in the stainless steel tanks for up to 20 months in an aqueous ethanol solution, which helps to extract the garlic compounds
  • Regular intake of aged garlic extract seems to reduce damage to the body caused by free radicals Smokers were distinguished from nonsmokers because they usually have elevated levels of free radical activity compared with nonsmokers Smokers had 8-iso prostaglandin plasma and urine concentrations of 58 percent and 85 percent, respectively, higher than nonsmokers After two weeks of use of aged garlic extract, the concentrations had decreased by 35 percent and 48 percent in smokers; 29 percent and 37 percent in nonsmokers
  • Some Interesting FactsSome Interesting Facts Why does your breath and skin stink after eating garlic?Why does your breath and skin stink after eating garlic? The sulfur molecules that are created when garlic isThe sulfur molecules that are created when garlic is smashedsmashed or chewed are absorbed into the bloodstream and lungs andor chewed are absorbed into the bloodstream and lungs and escape through exhaled air and perspirationescape through exhaled air and perspiration
  • Can Garlic Ward Off the Vampires? Mosquitoes suck blood and in doing so spread disease. So do vampires. Some of the symptoms of malaria - exhaustion, fever, anemia - are reminiscent of the reputed effects of being bitten by a vampire without being totally drained or turned. Garlic is a known insect repellent which reportedly works well against mosquitoes, perhaps people saw the similarity with vampires, especially when in their bat form.