Dr Dev Kambhampati | FAO- World Agriculture Towards 2030/2050

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Dr Dev Kambhampati | FAO- World Agriculture Towards 2030/2050

Text of Dr Dev Kambhampati | FAO- World Agriculture Towards 2030/2050

  • 1. WORLD AGRICULTURE TOWARDS 2030/2050 The 2012 Revision Nikos Alexandratos and Jelle Bruinsma Global Perspective Studies Team ESA Working Paper No. 12-03 June 2012 Agricultural Development Economics Division Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations www.fao.org/economic/esa

2. i World agriculture towards 2030/2050: the 2012 revision Nikos Alexandratos and Jelle Bruinsma Global Perspective Studies Team FAO Agricultural Development Economics Division Abstract This paper is a re-make of Chapters 1-3 of the Interim Report World Agriculture: towards 2030/2050 (FAO, 2006). In addition, this new paper includes a Chapter 4 on production factors (land, water, yields, fertilizers). Revised and more recent data have been used as basis for the new projections, as follows: (a) updated historical data from the Food Balance Sheets 1961-2007 as of June 2010; (b) undernourishment estimates from The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2010 (SOFI) and related new parameters (CVs, minimum daily energy requirements) are used in the projections; (c) new population data and projections from the UN World Population Prospects - Revision of 2008; (d) new GDP data and projections from the World Bank; (e) a new base year of 2005/2007 (the previous edition used the base year 1999/2001); (f) updated estimates of land resources from the new evaluation of the Global Agro-ecological Zones (GAEZ) study of FAO and IIASA. Estimates of land under forest and in protected areas from the GAEZ are taken into account and excluded from the estimates of land areas suitable for crop production into which agriculture could expand in the future; (g) updated estimates of existing irrigation, renewable water resources and potentials for irrigation expansion; and (h) changes in the text as required by the new historical data and projections. Like the interim report, this re-make does not include projections for the Fisheries and Forestry sectors. Calories from fish are, however, included, in the food consumption projections, along with those from other commodities (e.g. spices) not analysed individually. The projections presented reflect the magnitudes and trajectories we estimate the major food and agriculture variables may assume in the future; they are not meant to reflect how these variables may be required to evolve in the future in order to achieve some normative objective, e.g. ensure food security for all, eliminate undernourishment or reduce it to any given desired level, or avoid food overconsumption leading to obesity and related Non- Communicable Diseases. Keywords: agricultural outlook, food demand, production growth, nutrition, crop production, global outlook, land use, irrigation, crop yields. JEL classification: FO1, O13, Q11, Q17, Q18, Q21, Q24, Q25 3. ii Acknowledgements This paper was prepared by Nikos Alexandratos (Chapters 1, 2 and 3 and the related quantifications) and Jelle Bruinsma (Chapter 4) who also performed the underlying calculations except for the calculation of water requirements in irrigation which was performed by Jippe Hoogeveen. Comments by Kostas Stamoulis, Dominique van der Mensbrugghe, Piero Conforti, Seth Meyer and the provision of data and projections by the team that prepared the OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook are gratefully acknowledged, as are comments on Chapter 4 by Gnther Fischer, Harrij van Velthuizen and Freddy Nachtergaele (on GAEZ), Jean-Marc Faurs, Jacob Burke and Jippe Hoogeveen (on irrigation), Simon Mack (on livestock) and Jan Poulisse (on fertilizers). The authors alone are responsible for any remaining errors. The opinions expressed in this paper are the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of FAO. Citation Alexandratos, N. and J. Bruinsma. 2012. World agriculture towards 2030/2050: the 2012 revision. ESA Working paper No. 12-03. Rome, FAO. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. In the presentation of statistical material, countries are, where appropriate, aggregated in the following main economic groupings: Developed countries and Developing countries, as listed in the Appendix. The designation developed and developing economies is intended for statistical convenience and does not necessarily express a judgement about the stage of development reached by a particular country. 4. iii CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW.................................................................................................... 1 CHAPTER 2 PROSPECTS FOR FOOD AND NUTRITION ............................................ 23 2.1 The broad picture: historical developments and present situation................................ 23 2.1.1 Progress made in raising food consumption per person ................................ 23 2.1.2 The incidence of undernourishment past and present................................. 25 2.2 The outlook for food and nutrition in the projections................................................... 29 2.2.1 Demographics ................................................................................................ 29 2.2.2 Overall economy............................................................................................ 34 2.2.3 Food security outcomes ................................................................................. 36 2.3 Structural changes in the commodity composition of food consumption..................... 41 2.4 Concluding remarks...................................................................................................... 50 ANNEX 2.1 Indias Food Demand Projections in a Global Context.................................... 51 CHAPTER 3 PROSPECTS FOR AGRICULTURE AND MAJOR COMMODITY GROUPS ................................................................................ 59 3.1 Aggregate agriculture: historical trends and prospects................................................. 59 3.2 Cereals ....................................................................................................................... 65 3.3 Livestock commodities ................................................................................................. 71 3.3.1 Past and present ............................................................................................. 71 3.3.2 Prospects for the livestock sector................................................................... 75 3.4 Oilcrops, vegetable oils and products ........................................................................... 80 3.4.1 Past and present ............................................................................................. 80 3.4.2 Prospects for the oilcrops sector.................................................................... 84 3.5 Roots, tubers and plantains ........................................................................................... 85 3.5.1 Past and present ............................................................................................. 85 3.5.2 Roots, tubers and plantains in the future........................................................ 87 3.6 Sugar ....................................................................................................................... 87 ANNEX 3.1 Biofuels and Climate Change in the Projections ........................................... 92 CHAPTER 4 AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE.......................................................................................... 94 4.1 Production growth in agriculture .................................................................................. 94 4.2 Crop production ............................................................................................................ 97 4.2.1 Sources of growth.......................................................................................... 97 4.2.2 Land with crop production potential............................................................ 101 4.2.3 Expansion of land in crop production.......................................................... 106 4.2.4 Expansion of irrigated land.......................................................................... 112 4.2.5 Irrigation water requirements and pressure on water resources .................. 116 4.2.6 Crop yield growth........................................................................................ 119 4.2.7 Fertilizer consumption................................................................................. 126 4.3 Livestock production .................................................................................................. 131 APPENDIX 1 Countries and Commodities Included in the Analysis................................. 134 5. iv APPENDIX 2 Summary Note on Methodology.................................................................. 137 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................... 140 Boxes Box 1.1 Measuring the increase in aggregate agricultural production (all crop and livestock products) ........................................................................ 7 Box 2.1 Measuring the incidence of undernourishment: the key role of the estimates of food available for direct human consumption........................ 27 Box 2.2 Countries with high population growth to 2050 and limited agricultural resources: an untenable combination? .......................................... 31 Box 2. 3 Population growth and global food demand..................................................... 32 Box 4.1 Projecting land use and yield growth ...............................................