Its about the impacts of urbanization on various aspects such as the environment , business etc
Text of Impacts of Urbanization
Urbanization is the shift from a rural to an urban society,
bringing a large concentration of people into towns and cities.This
process usually occurs when a nation is still developing. Leads to
a general increase in the population and industralization .
Currently more than 3.3 billion people live in towns and cities
, the number is expected to grow to 5 billion by 2030. Over 80
percent of this growth will accrue to Asia and Africa , In 1800
only about 2 percent of the world's population lived in urban
areas. In only 200 years, the world's urban population has grown
from 2 percent to nearly 50 percent of all people. The population
of Chicago increased from 15 people to about 20 million, within a
span of 78 years.
Mumbai is the most populous city in India , and the fourth most
populous city in the world , with a total metropolitan area
population of approximately 20.5 million. Among all the States and
Union territories, the NationalCapitalTerritory of Delhi is most
urbanized with 93 percent urban population .
The beginning of urbanization can be traced back to Renaissance
times in 16th century. Turkish assaults resulted in movement of
Christians from the east to western European countries. As a
result, trade grew and European cities along the coasts developed
A further boost for urbanization was created with the arrival
of the Industrial Revolution. Populations of cities in Europe and
USA started to increase significantly in the 18th and 19th
centuries. However, urbanization started inAsia only in the first
half of the 20th century and in the second half of the 20th century
in Africa, when the countries obtained independence from colonial
Today as compared to Asian and African countries, countries
such as USA and UK have a higher urbanization level. Economic
forces helped to locate factories and workers in cities. In USA 5%
of the population lived in cities in 1800. By 1920 50% of the
population lived in cities. In comparison only 17.8% of population
ofThird world societies lived in cities in 1950. But by 2000, the
percentage had increased to 40%. By 2030, the percentage is
predicted to increase to 60%. Australia is the most urbanized
country in the world. Both the rate and level of urbanization in
Australia are high.
Urbanization in India was mainly caused after independence, due
to adoption of mixed system of economy by the country which gave
rise to the development of private sector. Population residing in
urban areas in India, according to 1901 census, was 11.4%.This
count increased to 28.53% in 2001, and crossing 30% as per 2011
census, standing at 31.16%.
Industrialization: Major cause of urbanization. It has expanded
the employment opportunities. Rural people have migrated to cities
on account of better employment opportunities. Social factors:
Social factors such as better standard of living, better
educational facilities induce people to migrate to cities.
Employment opportunities : In rural sector people depend mainly on
agriculture for their livelihood , but Indian agriculture depends
on monsoon. Due to drought people move to cities.
IMPACT ON BUSINESS Positive Impacts Increase in market .
Profits of the business will increase. Business can benefit from
the infrastructure. Negative Impacts Small scale industries will
lose market. Agricultural will take a back seat
IMPACTS ON SOCIETY Positive Impacts Employment opportunities
will increase Standard of living increases Easier access to
healthcare, education , entertainment. MoreTransport facilities .
Negative Impacts Change in consumption patterns will lead to
various health complications. Loss of tradition and culture. Crime
rate increases Increase in the price of land.
IMPACTS ON ENVIRONMENT Positive Impacts The same output can be
produced using fewer resources so urbanization reduces the
ecological footprint. Urbanization allows more people to have
access to environment-friendly facilities and services at
affordable prices. Urbanization drives innovation, including green
Negative Impacts Causes various kinds of pollution like land,
air and water pollution. Deforestation Habitat Loss More stress on
resources Will lead to scarcity of resources
Urbanization can have a critical role in future development
scenarios . Urbanization can be critical for economic growth , for
reduction of poverty , for stabilization of population growth and
for long term sustainability . The challenge is not to control the
rate of urbanization but to achieve a pace and pattern of urban
development that is beneficial .