Textile & dyeing

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Practical Knowledge about Textile & Dyeing1..We are Textile Engineer..We are not receding from others. Dont feel you are a folly. Dont be flurry, brave it out quickly. Now Textile is engineering for not only covering all engineering but also wrapping all graduates of Bangladesh. We clothe others. We are existing at the same time with another. We may despise textile engineering, but we cannot live without it. Textile is eternal & everlasting engineering. We knit Sensual of others soul. When we come to the earth as a new born baby then kept on a piece of cloth. During the leading of our life, textile is an inevitable part. At the time of departure we never avoid the touch of textile. It preserved our body and mind from everything. Man can live for one or more days without food. But man cant live without garments for a single minute. Textile is from birth to death to eternity . .(AzMiR).PrefaceQuality never BetrayFor meeting the demand of 21th Century we need many qualified Textile Engineer but in our perspective there are two types of Textile Engineer one is more qualified another is more frantic about their position. No Frustration because you are the right key to touch your success. Dont draw your life map with pen but pencil (because pencil is erasable). Let bygones be bygones & go ahead with our future as if it will be keep in touch. Make a whistle with vivacious life & vivid future. There is no alternative to success. There is no alternative to hard work. Textile Engineering become a challenging subject so make sure. I gladly thank all who have helped me by providing inspiration, advice, suggestion & technical support at different level. E.AZMIR 01736569520 Open End(OE)yarnopen-end spinning is a technology for creating yarn without using a spindle. It was invented and developed in Czechoslovakia in Cotton Researching Institute in st nad Orlic in 1963. It is also known as break spinning or rotor spinning. The principle behind open end spinning is similar to that of a clothes dryer spinning full of sheets. If you could open the door and pull out a sheet, it would spin together as you pulled it out. Sliver from the card goes into the rotor, is spun into yarn and comes out, wrapped up on a bobbin, all ready to go to the next step. There is no roving stage or re-packaging on an auto-coner.Introduction to Open EndSpinning 1.In conventional spinning ,the fiber supply is reduced to the required mass per unit length by drafting & then consolidated into a yarn by the application of twist.2.There is no opportunity for the internal stresses created in the fibers during drafting to relax.3.In open end spinning, the fiber supply is reduced, as far as possible , to individual fibers, which are then carried forward on an air-stream as free fibers.4.This permits internal stresses to be relaxed & gives rise to the term free fiber spinning.5.These fibers are then progressively attached to the tail or open end of already formed rotating yarn.6.This enables twist to be imparted by rotation of the yarn end.7.Thus the continuously formed yarn has only to be withdrawn & taken up on a cross-wound package.

This system is much less labor intensive and faster than ring spinning with rotor speeds up to 140,000rpm. The Rotor design is the key to the operation of the open-ended spinners. Each type of fiber may require a different rotor design for optimum product quality and processing speed.

One disadvantage of open-end spinning is that it is limited to coarser counts, another is the structure of the yarn itself with fibers less in parallel compared to ring spun yarns for example, consequently cloth made from open-end yarn has a 'fuzzier' feel and poorer wear resistance.

Spirality (Twisting)of Knitted FabricIt is well known that weft knitted fabrics tend to undergo certain dimensional change that causes distortion in which there is a tendency of the knitted loops to bend over, causing the Wales to be at diagonal instead of perpendicular to the courses Angular relationship of course and Wales in a knitted structure

In other words, spirality occurs in knitted fabric because of asymmetric loops which turns in the wales and course of a fabric into an angular relationship other than 90 degree. This is a very common problem in single jersey knits and it may exist in grey, washed or finished state and has an obvious influence on both the aesthetic and functional performance of knitwear. However, it does not appear in interlock and rib knits because the wale on the face is counter balanced by a wale on the back. Course spirality is a very common inherent problem in plain knitted fabrics. Some of the practical problems arising out of the loop spirality in knitted garments are: displacement or shifting of seams, mismatched patterns and sewing difficulties. These problems are often corrected by finishing steps such as setting / treatment with resins, heat and steam, so that wale lines are perpendicular to the course lines. Such setting is often not stable, and after repeated washing cycles, skewing of the wales normally re-occurs.7Causes of generation (spirality ): The residual torque in the component yarn caused due to bending and twisting is the most important phenomenon contributing to spirality. The residual torque is shown by its twist liveliness. Hence the greater the twist liveliness, the greater is the spirality. Twist liveliness of yarn is affected by the twist factor or twist multiple. Besides the torque, spirality is also governed by fibre parameters, cross-section, yarn formation system, yarn geometry, knit structure and fabric finishing. Machine parameters do contribute to spirality. For instance, with multi-feeder circular knitting machines, course inclination will be more, thus exhibit spirality.

How you measure spirality %?First you take a body & sewing the body along the course in hempLet, hemp length=57cm(sewing length on hemp)After wash,Body 57cm on hemp is turn off after wash we get 54cm

Spirality %is i.e

57-54 /54 *100

5.26% Body measurement for spiralityThere are two spiral body after wash in the bottom is hemp & measured with tape.In bottom, i.e total length of hemp & after white line is spiral length.

Why Heat setting is needed for100% polyester yarn & lycra (Extensible) fabric?The dry heat setting of Terylene filament fabrics is considered in relation to dimensioned Stability, wet creasing, stiffness and recovery from dry creasing, and dyeing properties. The effects of aqueous heat are also discussed. Setting machines are described, and the setting conditions for Terylene fabrics outlined.Before dyeing & After dyeing heat setting may needed.Before dyeing: To give dimensional Stability of fabric to improve anti pilling & crease recovery property but show some disadvantage,

Disadvantage :Give low dye pick up Dirt & dust deposition permanently

After dyeing: Help to improve crease in the fabric. To set final dimension. For heat setting required temp-180-200C Fabric speed-16-25m/minIt depends on the number of burner & bower of stenter m/c. Must have calculate how many time the fabric stay in the m/c.

No of burner Fabric speed Let, 1 burner length=3 meters, so 8 burners=24 meters Then fabric stay 2.5*24= 60 seconds (when fabric speed is 24m/min i.e 60/24=2.5sec./meter)


First of all, take 5ml water in a bottle than added 5 drop of buffer solution and 1 drop of indicator.

Then add EDTA (Ethylene di amine Tetra Acetic Acid) by injection. Injection is pointed 0.01 to 1.

Finally calculate by giving result how many EDTA are needed to change the color. 5 ml water+5 drop of buffer solution+1 drop indicatorWater Hardness=Water volume*used EDTA


=21 ppm(parts per million)StandardSoft water=180ppm

if we use 10 ml water then multiply 500. If we use 5 ml water Then multiply 300.

How you determine count from fabric?First draw out some yarn from the fabric as if the weight of yarns must be more than .1 gm Then measure the length of yarn in CM(centimeter) carefullyFinally you count the number of yarn has taken.

No of Yarn*Yarn length(cm)*constant

Yarn weight(gm) 24*22.1*0.0058891


30 Ne

Reactive Dye Reactive Dye (why so called): Reactive dyes react with the fibers. Mainly react with cellulose fibers. e.g. cotton, jute, bast fibers, viscose, flax. Some time it can be applied to protein fibers also e.g. wool & Silk.

The general formula of reactive dye can be written as follows:D-X-YHere, D Chromophore of Dye posts. X Bridge. Y Functional group.D-X-Y + Fiber D-X-Y- Fiber covalent bond.Fixation reactionCellCh2OH + DyeX CellCH2ODye +HX Cellulose reactive dye acid dyed fiber X=reactive group

Cell-O- H+ NaOH=(Cell O Na+) and st