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Kasra Nakhaee

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  • Contents

    Introduction. 3

    Principle of Heat Pipe operation 4

    Heat Pipe Types. 10

    HPHXs & Applications 28

    HPHX Types..... 31

    References. 40

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 2

  • Introduction

    Heat pipe concept described in 1942

    Heat Pipe term was used in 1963

    High heat transport characteristics due to Use of Latent Heat

    No Energy Required for its Operation

    It was developed originally for the gravity-free environment

    Increasing usage in many industrial applications

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 3

  • HP consists:

    Closed container

    Working fluid

    Porous capillary wick

    One end functions as evaporator

    The other end functions as condenser

    P = Psat at its operating temperature

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 4

    Principle of Heat Pipe operation

  • Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 5

    Principle of Heat Pipe operation

  • Thermodynamic cycle:

    1-2 Heat applied to evaporator through external sources vaporizes working

    fluid to a saturated(2) or superheated (2) vapor.

    2-3 Vapor pressure drives vapor through adiabatic section to condenser.

    3-4 Vapor condenses, releasing heat to a heat sink.

    4-1 Capillary pressure created by menisci in wick pumps condensed fluid into

    evaporator section.

    Process starts over.

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 6

    Principle of Heat Pipe operation

  • Thermodynamic cycle:

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 7

    Principle of Heat Pipe operation

  • Limits:

    Wicking

    Entrainment

    Sonic

    Boiling

    Flooding

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 8

    Principle of Heat Pipe operation

  • Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 9

    Principle of Heat Pipe operation

    MEDIUMMELTING PT. ( C )

    BOILING PT. AT ATM. PRESSURE

    ( C)

    USEFUL RANGE

    ( C)

    Helium

    Ammonia

    Water

    Silver

    - 271

    - 78

    0

    960

    - 261

    - 33

    100

    2212

    -271 to -269

    -60 to 100

    30 to 200

    1800 to 2300

  • a) Tow-Phase Closed Thermosyphon

    b) Capillary-Driven Heat Pipe

    c) Annular Heat Pipe

    d) Vapor Chamber

    e) Rotating Heat Pipe

    f) Gas-Loaded Heat Pipe

    Heat Pipe Types

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 10

  • g) Loop heat pipes (LHP)

    h) Capillary Pumped Loop Heat Pipe

    i) Pulsating heat pipes (PHP)

    j) Micro and Miniature Heat Pipe

    k) Inverted Meniscus Heat Pipe

    l) Nonconventional Heat Pipe

    Heat Pipe Types

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 11

  • Heat Pipe Types

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 12

    a) Two-Phase closed Thermosyphon:

    Gravity-assisted wickless

    Sonic and vapor pressure limit

    Flooding limit and boiling limit

    Thermosyphons are often several meters long

    prevent permafrost melting along pipelines, roads and train-rails

  • Heat Pipe Types

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 13

    About 120,000 heat pipes were installed along the Trans Alaska Pipeline

  • Heat Pipe Types

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 14

    b) Capillary-Driven Heat Pipe:

    Wick provide capillary-driven pumping

    Capillary limit

    Using in almost all laptop computers

    Various commercial and aerospace applications

  • Heat Pipe Types

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 15

    c) Annular Heat Pipe:

    Similar to capillary-driven heat pipe

    Main difference in cross section of vapor space

  • Heat Pipe Types

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 16

    d) Vapor Chamber

    Capillary-driven planar

    Additional wick blocks

    Can be placed in direct contact with CPU

    Excellent candidate for electronic cooling applications

    Electronic cooling with heat fluxes higher than 50 2

  • Heat Pipe Types

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 17

    e) Rotating Heat Pipe

    designed to cool machinery by removing heat through a rotating shaft

    rotating heat pipe uses centrifugal forces

    design in tow configuration: a) circular cylinder b) disk type

    a)Cooling rotating parts of electric motors and metal-cutting tools

    b)Cooling turbine components and automobile brakes

  • Heat Pipe Types

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 18

    e) Rotating Heat Pipe

  • Heat Pipe Types

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 19

    e) Rotating Heat Pipe

  • Heat Pipe Types

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 20

    f) Gas-Loaded Heat Pipe

    Same as capillary-driven heat pipe

    Difference : a noncondensing gas introduced into the vapor space

    Result: nearly constant evaporator temperature regardless of the heat input

    Using for an isothermal furnace and for electronic cooling

  • Heat Pipe Types

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 21

    f) Gas-Loaded Heat Pipe

  • Heat Pipe Types

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 22

    g) Loop Heat Pipe

    Compensation chamber

    2 wick structure in evaporator

    Long thermal transport distance

    Attractive for spacecraft cooling

    Alternative for Thermal control device in scientific heat regulation

    and telecommunication satellites

  • Heat Pipe Types

    g) Loop Heat Pipe

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 23

  • Heat Pipe Types

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 24

    i) Pulsating Heat Pipe

    Two type: a)looped, b)unlooped

    Self-excited oscillatory motion

    No wick structure

    Weighs less than conventional heat pipe

    Surface tension has a great role in the dynamics of PHP

    Space applications, thermal control of electrical devices

  • Heat Pipe Types

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 25

    k) Micro & Miniature Heat Pipes

    10 < Dh

  • Heat Pipe Types

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 26

    k) Micro & Miniature Heat Pipes

  • Heat Pipe Types

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 27

    l) Nonconventional Heat Pipes

    Different geometries

    Examples:

    Polygonal: micro Heat Pipe

    Leading edge: future hypersonic aircraft

    Cover the leading edge of the wings and engine nacelles

  • HPHXs Applications

    a) HVAC

    b) Waste heat recovery from combustion gases

    c) Data center cooling

    d) Power plant dry cooling towers

    e) Steam condensers

    f) Latent thermal energy storage solar power generation

    g) CPU cooling in laptop computers

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 28

  • HPHXs Applications

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 29

  • HPHXs Applications

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 30

  • HPHX Types

    1. Conventional HPHX

    2. PCM-HPHXs

    3. Conventional HPHSs

    4. PCM-HPHSs

    5. Reflux heat exchanger (RHXs)

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 31

  • 1. Conventional HPHXs and Applications

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015

    1.1. HVAC systems

    1.2. Bakery

    1.3. Metal forging

    1.4. Automotive

    1.5. Data center cooling

    1.6. Power plant cooling tower

    1.7. Nuclear spent fuel cooling

    1.8. Solar water heating

    32

  • 1. Conventional HPHXs and Applications

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 33

  • 1. Conventional HPHXs and Applications

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 34

  • 1. Conventional HPHXs and Applications

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 35

  • 2.1. General thermal energy storage

    2.2. Solar thermal power generation

    2.3. Data center cooling

    2.4. Automotive

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015

    2. PCM-HPHXs and Applications

    36

  • 3.1. Electronics/CPU cooling using HPHSs

    3.2. Permafrost stabilization

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015

    3. HPHSs and Applications

    37

  • 4.1. Electronics/CPU cooling using HPHSs

    4.2. Spacecraft thermal management

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015

    4. PCM-HPHSs and Applications

    38

  • 5.1. Solar water heating

    5.2. Nuclear rector cooling

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015

    5. Reflux Heat Exchangers and Applications

    39

  • References

    Hamidreza Shabgard, Michael J. Allen, Nourouddin Sharifi, Steven P. Benn , Amir Faghri ,Theodore L. Bergman,

    2015. Heat pipe heat exchangers and heat sinks: Opportunities, challenges, applications, analysis, and state of

    the art. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer

    Leonard L. Vasiliev, 2005. Review Heat pipes in modern heat exchangers. Applied Thermal Engineering

    Faghri, Amir, 2012. Review and Advances in Heat Pipe Science and Technology. Journal of Heat Transfer

    Greg F. Naterer, 2008. Heat Exchangers and Heat Pipes. US: Taylor &Francis

    Faghri, Amir, 1995. Heat Pipe Science and Technology. US: Taylor &Francis

    Saunders, E. A. D, 1988. Heat exchangers : selection, design & construction. UK: Longman Scientific & Technical, Wiley

    http://www.1-act.com/rotating-heat-pipes/

    http://www.hexag.org/news/32/sterling.pdf

    http://dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a073597.pdf

    Kasra Nakhaee - November 2015 40

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0017931015005037http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359431103003983http://heattransfer.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=1660651http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1081/E-EEE-120042339#.Vlio83YrLIUhttps://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=9QpQAQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR15&ots=MQDIRTASNn&sig=p64dEriCxSNNpNLqUXA4vvSeq6k#v=onepage&q&f=falsehttps://books.google.com/books?id=b-JSAAAAMAAJ&q=saunders+heat+exchanger&dq=saunders+heat+exchanger&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiEyvuXp7HJAhVBHA8KHUurAdAQ6AEIHTAAhttp://www.1-act.com/rotating-heat-pipes/http://www.hexag.org/news/32/sterling.pdfhttp://dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a073597.pdf